The Evangelical Catholic Church is a part of that Church which has existed ever since our ascended Lord commanded His Disciples to be His witnesses to the end of the ages. Her faith, doctrine, and confessions are evidence of this continuing link with the past, in contradistinction to both those who separated from the medieval Church and submitted to the heretical claims of the Papacy and its hierarchy (becoming the sectarian Roman Catholic Church at the Council of Trent) and those radical reformers who jettisoned large elements of the historic Christian Faith (consequently removing themselves from the Catholic Church). The Confessions of The Evangelical Catholic Church repeatedly insist that in Her doctrine there is nothing that varies from the Scriptures or from The Catholic Church, and that She takes most diligent care that no new doctrine should creep into our churches, for a new doctrine would be neither Scriptural nor a universal Catholic doctrine. She believes and teaches The Faith of the ancient undivided Church, firmly holding to the mystery of The All-Holy Trinity (by all creation to be ever blessed, glorified and adored) and acknowledging Jesus Christ as the one true God, the One Who is coming again to judge the living and the dead.

As a testimony of Her faithfully preserving the wholeness of the full and true Faith of Jesus our God, The Evangelical Catholic Church espouses The Rule of Saint Vincent of Lerins (A.D. 434):

Id teneamus, quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus est; hoc est etenim vere propieque catholicum.

We maintain what everywhere and always by everyone has been believed, this being truly and actually Catholic.

This Vincentian Canon also stands as a bulwark against all unfaithfulness in preserving and handing on the full and true Catholic Faith (e.g., against those who have submitted to the unscriptural or purely political Papal claims, against all others who have rejected such Faith).

Thus, although legally incorporated in The State of Arizona in 1976, The Evangelical Catholic Church is not an interpretation of Christianity, not a party or a denomination; She is an integral part of that Body which Our Lord addressed when He said: I am the vine, ye are the branches; and Lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the ages. She believes and teaches the pure apostolic testimony of The Gospel, while at the same time She is able to trace Her existence historically, through the consecration of Her Bishops, directly back to The Apostles (and through them to Our Lord).

This careful maintenance of an historical link with the Apostolic Church expressed through the regular episcopal consecration of Bishops in Apostolic Succession, as well as the ecclesiastical government of Bishops themselves, has been held and acknowledged by the true Catholic Church from the earliest days. Our Confessions maintain this historic view:

… it is our greatest wish to maintain church polity and the grades in the Church, even though they have been made by human authority. For we know that church discipline was instituted by the fathers, in the manner laid down in the ancient canons, with a good and useful intention. . . . Furthermore, we wish here again to testify that we will gladly maintain ecclesiastical and canonical government, provided the bishops only cease to rage against our Churches. This our desire will clear us both before God and among all nations to all posterity from the imputation against us that the authority of the bishops is being undermined.

Apology XIV, 24
The Synods of The Evangelical Catholic Church have consistently affirmed their acceptance of The Book of Concord of 1580, and have adopted the clerical grades and ecclesiastical and canonical government which it and Dr. Martin Luther espouse and prefer (the emergency long ago having ended).

And Jerome observes: “. . . For in Alexandria, from the time of Mark the Evangelist to the time of Bishops Heracles and Dionysius, the presbyters always chose one of their number, set him in a higher place, and called him Bishop. Moreover, in the same way in which an army might select a commander for itself, the deacons may choose from their number one who is known to be active and name him archdeacon.”

Treatise on the Power & Primacy of the Pope, 62.
The Evangelical Catholic Church sees Episcopal administration and Apostolic Succession as analogous to the formulation of the doctrines of the Trinity, Christology, Grace and the sacraments, i.e., a divinely willed, Spirit-directed development within The Church, the character of which is really and truly ecumenical because it took place uniformly both in the East and in the West. In the tripartition of the priestly office (deacon, priest, bishop) vibrates the triadic rhythm of the eternal divine life; in the monarchial bishop the ascended Christ, the invisible Head of The Church, becomes visible; and in the chain of bishops, consecrated by episcopal imposition of hands, the unbroken continuity is visualized, which unites The Church of the 21st Century with The Church of The Apostles. Thus the bonds of The Evangelical Catholic Church with those first days in Nazareth and Galilee remain unbroken, assured both by its faithful proclamation of The Gospel in all its apostolic purity and by its regular episcopal ordination of Bishops in Apostolic Succession. The Evangelical Catholic Church claims both a valid Apostolic Succession and a faithful transmission of The Gospel in all its truth and purity.

The Evangelical Catholic Church recognizes that the sacred ministry is a divine institution based upon a divine commission. The Church is recognized externally, writes Father Martin Luther in On the Councils and The Church, by the fact that She consecrates or calls ministers. From the writings of The New Testament and from the teachings, traditions and customs of Holy Mother Church, we know that the Priesthood is a necessary element of The Church, and is included among Her constitutive marks (nota ecclesiae), having received its beginning and its mission directly from our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and from The Holy Apostles (vide: Titus 1:5).

Wo man aber das Sakrament des Ordens wollte nennen ein Sakrament von dem Predigtamt und Evangelio, so hätte es keine Beschwerung, die Ordination ein Sakrament zu nennen.

Apology of the Augsburg Confession XII (VII), 11 (German)
The Episcopacy is de jure divino and not a mere human invention nor even a nice or convenient form of ecclesial polity. The Ministry of a Bishop is essentially three-fold: (1) Sacramental; (2) Magisterial; and (3) Administrative. It is within the Bishop’s power de jure divino to administer the Word and the Sacraments, to guard Orthodox and Catholic Truth and denounce heresies, and to excommunicate the ungodly.

Potestas episcoporum . . . esse mandatum Dei praedicandi evangelii, remittendi et retinendi peccata, administrandi sacramenta.

Augsburg Confession XXVIII
Any jurisdiction which claims The Augsburg Confession as a Confessional Document will abide by these words (make the Catholic doctrine of episcopacy known, valued, and exercised).

The Church Order of The Church of Sweden clearly reflects this understanding:

Since this ordinance was very useful and without doubt proceeded from the Holy Ghost, it was generally approved and accepted over the whole of Christendom. . . . It belongs to the office of the Bishop that he in his diocese shall ordain and govern with Priests, and do whatsoever else is required.”

The Bishop, who is to feed the flock, scripturally has rule over the flock (for if he does not have rule over the flock, then he is an hireling and not a Christian priest). St. Paul admonishes all Christians:

Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the Word of God . . . Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you.

Heb. 13:7, 17
Thus Holy Scriptures, as well as the canons of the undivided Church, teach a form of Church polity. The Bishop, who has been called as Christ’s representative by God into the Sacred Ministry, is to rule over The Church as a father governs his household; he, the called, ordained and consecrated Bishop, shall be held accountable to God for his administration. The Faithful are commanded here and in the Fourth Commandment to obey their spiritual fathers, the ministers who have spoken unto you the Word of God — for The Faithful shall be held accountable to God for the obedience they render their pastors.

According to divine right, therefore (as said above), it is the office of the Bishop to preach the Gospel, forgive sins, judge doctrine and condemn doctrine that is contrary to the Gospel, and exclude from the Christian community the ungodly whose wicked conduct is manifest. All this is to be done not by human power but by God’s Word alone. On this account parish ministers and churches are bound to be obedient to the Bishops according to the saying of Christ in Luke 10:16, “He who hears you hears Me.”

Augsburg Confession XXVIII, 21-22 (German)
In the Augsburg Confession, only the Bishop is mentioned, except for the two places where the Priest is mentioned. Deacons are mentioned in Art. XXIV, On the Mass. “That shows that the Bishop is considered to be the man with the full Ministry; he is the dispenser of it in different degrees through different ordinations. Here is the doctrine of the Catholic Church” (Fr. Gunnar Rosendal, Rector of St. Petri, Osby, Sweden, in The Catholic Movement in The Swedish Church).

We therefore conclude, in the words of Professor Leonard Hutter of Wittenberg University (1596 – 1616):

Whatever God appointed, whatever was always observed by the apostles, was confirmed by the practice of the early Church, and finally was profitable and advantageous to the Church, that must be regarded as necesssary, and be firmly retained in the Church. But such government of the Church, with respect to bishops and teachers, was aristocratic. … Therefore it must be regarded as necessary, and be firmly retained, nor must it be changed in any way into a monarchy {or a democracy!).

Compendium Locorum Theologicorum
A so-called democratic form of Church polity, or congregational rule/autonomy, where the children rule the father, is unscriptural, non-Catholic, non-Lutheran, and a subversion of God’s natural, revealed Order. The form of Church government practiced by the LC-MS and ELCA (and almost all other expressions of American Lutheranism) was condemned by Fr. Luther when Philip of Hesse (perhaps the most prominent Prince within the Reformation Movement next to the Elector of Saxony), prevailed upon the synod at Hamburg in 1526 to adopt a form of congregational government ordered by a constitution accepted by all. In January 1527 Dr. Luther convinced Philip to repudiate this plan for congregational government. Such polity (i.e. , congregationalism) undermines The Gospel and usually leads to the distorted view that, because The Faithful are a royal priesthood (I Pet. 2:9), all Christians (the priesthood of all believers) possess the public office of the ministry. Such a teaching (i.e., the mandate or justification of a congregational form of Church polity) is not found in Holy Scriptures; such a practice does not conform to the teachings of Dr. Luther. That is why, without a doubt, the Lutheran Confessions nowhere mention such a “doctrine”. The congregational (or priesthood of all believers) form of Church polity has no foundation in the Scriptures, the canons of the undivided Church, the Lutheran Confessions, or the writings of Dr. Martin Luther. For this reason the canons of The Evangelical Catholic Church state that the parish Pastor is the spiritual father of his parish (XIII,1).

The Pastor is responsible for the spiritual, financial, and administrative welfare of his parish; he establishes the character of life and goals of his parish; he may organize his parish in any manner he deems appropriate, with the permission of his Ordinary.

ECC Canons, XIII,2
The Missouri Synod’s Brief Statement of 1932 is in direct conflict with Scripture, Tradition and The Lutheran Confessions in this area when it heretically proclaims that “Christ Himself commits to all believers the keys of the kingdom of heaven.” The Augsburg Confession (Latin, Art. XXVIII, Sec. 21) states that the ministry of Word and Sacraments has been commited to the Bishops. This is confirmed in John 20:24. Yet the Brief Statement later, in the section “Of the Public Ministry” (Paragraph 32), contradicts itself when it asserts with Scripture and Dr. Luther that “it is the duty of Christians to yeiled unconditional obedience to the office of the ministry whenever, and as long as, the minister proclaims to them the Word of God”. Contrary to current American Lutheran practice, this statement by The Missouri Synod clearly supports Scripture and The Reformers by eliminating any right of the layman to administer the Word and Sacraments!

An equality before God because of Jesus Christ does not mean that a special office of the ministry, ordained by Christ, becomes superfluous. All who are called to faith in Jesus are members of the royal priesthood, but not all are called to the public priesthood. All who are called to faith in Christ are members of a priestly nation, but each retains his station in life as he lives among the Gentiles.

The Evangelical Catholic Church teaches that men cannot be justified before God by their own strength, merits, or works, but are freely justified for Christ’s sake, through faith, when they believe that they are received into favor, and that their sins are forgiven for Christ’s sake. Our response to this free gift of salvation must be a vibrant faith manifested in the way we live our lives (i.e., good works). Just as soon as The Holy Spirit has incorporated us into The Body of Christ (i.e., The Church), He requires us, with the power and gifts He supplies, to fully participate (with all our intelligence, skills and being) in and at every stage of the process by which we are transformed by Him from sinners into holy people (Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration II, 65; XI, 21).

The Evangelical Catholic Church believes that The Holy Spirit is active in every aspect of the life of The Church, for The Church is constituted by The Spirit working through the Means of Grace and She is sanctified through The Word (the pure teaching) and Sacraments. Our Lord promises (in John 15:26) that “when the Comforter comes, whom I will send to you from my Father, the Spirit of truth which proceeds from my Father, He will testify concerning me.” The Church, which cannot err, is taught and illuminated by The Holy Spirit working through the holy Fathers and Doctors of the Catholic Church. The Church is the pillar and bulwark of the truth, writes Dr. Luther, built on the rock, and called holy and irreproachable (Eph. 2:21). Thus one rightly and truly says, The Church cannot err, for God’s word, which She teaches, cannot err. The Spirit is not found apart from The Church, for He is found only wherever The Word is preached in Its truth and purity and The Holy Mysteries are rightly observed (Apology IX,2).

The Evangelical Catholic Church, as part of The Catholic and Orthodox Church, affirms and acknowledges the Three Ecumenical Creeds: Apostles’ Creed, Nicene (Niceno-Constantinopolitan) Creed (the only Creed specifically authorized by Ecumenical Councils–Nicea, 325 A.D.; Constantinople, 381 A.D. ), Athanasian Creed. We reject the secularly political addition to the Nicene Creed (filioque) first made by the Emperor Karl the Great (Karl der Große, Charlemagne) and subsequently authorized by the local Synod of Toledo in 589 A.D. (thus breaking from the unity and fellowship of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church by rejecting the decisions of the two Ecumenical Councils of the whole undivided Church). It is of the essence of The Good News in Christ Jesus that the New Life bestowed upon the individual at the time of Holy Baptism/Chrismation, from beginning to end, is soley the work of The Holy Spirit (Who proceeds from The Father through The Son).

The Evangelical Catholic Church confesses one Baptism (for adults and infants), and insists that Baptism is necessary to salvation. This Sacrament of Holy Baptism is the most decisive event in the individual’s life for it incorporates one into The Body of Christ. To be baptized is to become a full member of The Church, to put on Jesus and become a living part of Him. “As many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. Alleluia!” By this precious Mystery we receive salvation from sin and reconciliation with God by becoming participants in the Death and Resurrection of Christ Jesus. In Holy Baptism God engrafts the individual into Jesus and raises him to New Life; God gives this Candidate for Baptism the priceless gift of saving faith and the power of The Holy Spirit to fulfill his vocation in this world and to reign with Christ in His eternal kingdom.

As in the earliest centuries of The Church, Chrismation (Confirmation) is seen as an integral part of Holy Baptism wherein the Candidate is sealed with The Sign of The Holy Cross and confirmed in The Faith with the gifts of The Holy Spirit. This is the individual’s Pentecost. As The Holy Spirit descended visibly upon the Apostles in tongues of fire, so here He now descends invisibly with the same power and certainty.

Now when the Apostles at Jerusalem heard that the Samaritan people had accepted the Word of God, they sent to them Simon Peter and John, Who, when they went down, prayed over them that they might receive The Holy Spirit, For as yet it had not come upon them although they had been baptized in the name of our Lord Jesus. Then they laid their hands on them and they received The Holy Spirit.

Acts 8:14-17
The newly Baptized becomes an “anointed one” after the likeness of The Anointed One (Jesus The Christ). As Dr. Luther affirms in his Large Catechism (V,87), because children have been baptized and fully incorporated into The Church, they should also participate in the fellowship of Holy Communion.

“Darum wisse ein jeglicher Hausvater, daß er aus Gottes Befehl and Gebot schuldig ist, seine Kinder solches zu lehren oder lernen (zu) lassen, was sie können sollen. Denn weil sie getauft sind und in die Christenheit genommen, sollen sie auch solcher Gemeinschaft des Sakraments geniessen…”

As the witness of Scripture (e.g., Acts 8:14-17) and Tradition teach, there is no valid Biblical, historical, or theological reason for separating Chrismation from Baptism! (Just the opposite, in fact!) There is no justification for imposing our own personal or cultural standards defining when a full member of The Body of Christ is allowed to commune. The Faith of The Catholic Church is that the newly Baptized/Confirmed will, as part of the very same Mass, join The Household of God at The Family Meal (The Holy Eucharist) by fully participating in and receiving Holy Communion. The Lord’s Supper is given to all members of The Church from the moment of their reception by Baptism/Confirmation onwards. This means that the Christian’s earliest childhood memories of The Church will probably be associated with coming to receive Christ’s Sacred Body and Most Precious Blood. The Believer’s last conscious action in life will also, hopefully, be the reception of the medicine of immortality, the Holy Gifts of Our Lord’s Body and Blood. The Faithful’s experience of The Lord’s Supper thus should extend over the whole range of his conscious life.

The Evangelical Catholic Church recognizes The Sacrament of The Holy Eucharist as the only form of public worship commanded by Our Lord Jesus Christ. Jesus Himself warns that except ye eat the Flesh of the Son of Man, ye have not life in yourselves. The Church has historically insisted that Masses are performed every Lord’s Day and on the other festivals in which The Sacrament is offered to those who wish to use it. “Take! Eat! … Drink of it, all of you! …” These words urge all Christians to receive The Holy Eucharist in every celebration of The Divine Liturgy which they attend. Only the unbaptized and penitents (who have been excluded from receiving Holy Communion by their Pastor because of grievous sin) should not partake. We affirm the Biblical teaching of the Real Presence of Christ’s Body and Blood in the Mystery of Holy Communion, i.e., that after the consecration of the Bread and Wine in the Mass, the Bread is changed into the true Body of The Lord Jesus, Which was born in Bethlehem of the Ever-Virgin Mary, baptized in the Jordan, suffered, died, was buried, rose again, was resurrected, sitteth at the right hand of God The Father, and is to come again to judge the living and the dead; and the Wine is changed into the true Blood of The Lord Jesus, Which, as He hung upon the Cross at Calvary, was poured out for the life of the world. The Real Presence is certainly a magna, miraculosa et vere divina mutatio, such that after the consecration, The Body of Christ is “truly” and “substantially” present, exhibited and received. Thus Evanglical Catholics, according to Martin Chemnitz, are able to say, “We concede that there is some change; and indeed of such a kind that it can truly be said of the bread that it is the body of Christ” (Examination of The Council of Trent, Vol. 2, pg. 258; Concedimus igitur fieri mutationem aliquem: et quidem talem, ut de pane vere praedicari possit corpus Christi).

Against the misconstructions which the Reformed have put on the Lutheran doctrine of the sacramental union our dogmaticians have said (Hafenreffer): ‘The sacramental union is a) not a transubstantiation of the bread into the body of Christ; b) it is not a consubstantiation, or commixture of the two substances, but in both the bread and the wine the substance of the body and blood of Christ remains unmixed; c) nor is it a local or durable adhesion or conjunction to the bread and wine apart from the use of the Supper; d) nor is it an impanation, that is, the inclusion of some small corpuscle lying hid under the bread; e) nor is it, finally, a personal union of the bread and body of Christ, such as exists between the Son of God and the assumed humanity. (Doctr. Theol., p. 571).”

The Lutherans very strenuously reject the charge that the real presence implies a local inclusion, or an impanation, or consubstantiation (localis inclusio, impanatio, consubstantiatio).

CHRISTIAN DOGMATICS by John Theodore Muelloer, CPH 1955. pp. 519-520; pg. 528.
We consequently reject transubstantiation (as taught by The Church of Rome), consubstantiation (as taught by uneducated Lutherans), impanation, receptionism (as taught by many American Lutherans), and all other human efforts to explain the real change of the Bread and Wine into the Body and Blood of Christ, for it is a Mystery and is meant to be received with faith.

This Mystery of The Holy Eucharist becomes a reality by the Word of God, hallowed by the invocation of The Holy Spirit, and perfected by the presence of the thing signified (i.e., the Body and Blood of Jesus). This necessarily precedes its use, as Dr. Luther testifies. Before Its use after the consecration within the Mass, in Its use, and after Its use, and what is reserved in the Tabernacles for the communing of those who are sick or about to die, It is in all respects the true Body and Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ. “In, with, and under” the form of Bread and Wine, the Faithful truly receive The Sacred Body and Most Precious Blood of Jesus our God and Redeemer! (Vide: WA, Tischreden, 5, 55.)

Each time we participate in The Holy Eucharist we are:

Reminding ourselves of all that God has done for us through His Son, Christ Jesus our Lord and Saviour;

Publicly confessing our faith in Jesus as God and Saviour;

Celebrating our unity with angels and archangels and all the hosts of Heaven, our oneness with all who have, do now, or will in the future believe in Jesus as God and Saviour;

Receiving, in the true, corporeal, physical Body and Blood of Jesus, the Medicine of Immortality;

Receiving “the forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation;” the assurance that God does forgive all the sins of those who confess and repent;
Receiving the spiritual strength to endure and overcome all the temptations of Satan, the world, and even our old sinful nature (the Old Adam);

Offering and sacrificing to God — in thanksgiving for all that He has given us in love through Christ Jesus — all that we have and are (i.e. , we rededicate ourselves to God, reäffirm our Baptismal vows).

That is why Jesus said: This do often, as you do it, in remembrance of Me. The visible center of The Church’s spiritual life, as well as that of each individual member of The Church, is The Holy Altar and the sacrament of redemption which is celebrated thereon.

The Evangelical Catholic Church, together with the entire Church Catholic, affirms that there is a proper use of the Reservation of The Holy Sacrament when given to the sick, the dying, or as an indication of intercommunion. Its use at these times is, in fact, a most salutary testimony to the unity of The Body of Christ. She affirms the appropriateness of Eucharistic devotions within the celebration of The Divine Liturgy and She does not deny private devotions concerning the Reserved Sacrament. She proscribes and condemns, however, together with Her Confessions, all abuses and misuses of the Sacramental Elements (e.g., Exposition of the Sacrament, processions with the Sacrament, Benediction of The Blessed Sacrament, etc.).

The Evangelical Catholic Church believes and teaches that The Mystery of The Holy Eucharist can be celebrated by none other than a Priest who has received the Sacrament of Ordination (Apology XIII, 9-13) from an Orthodox, Catholic and Canonical Bishop, as is the doctrine, true confession, and most ancient tradition and practice of the true Catholic Church.

The Evangelical Catholic Church, guided by God’s certain Word (e.g., I Cor. 14:34-37, I Tim. 2:11-12, Gen. 3:16-17) and the clear understanding and teaching of the Early Church (e.g., The Constitutions of the Holy Apostles [c. 380 A.D.], Didascalia Apostolorum [c. 245 A.D.], The Council of Nicea, Canon XIX [325 A.D.], The Council of Laodicea, Canons XI & XLIV [343-381 A.D.], The Council of Quinisext, Canon LXX [692 A.D.]), rejects the innovation of female clergy. “For this is one of the ignorant practices of Gentile atheism, to ordain women priests to the female deities, not one of the constitutions of Christ” (The Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, Ante-Nicene Fathers,” Vol. VII, pg. 429).

“Let your women keep silence in the churches, for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law. And if they will learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church . . . the things I write to you are the commandments of the Lord.”

I Cor. 14:34-35, 37
With the Church Catholic, in the words of Dr. Martin Luther, we affirm that children, women, and other persons are not qualified for this office, even though they are able to hear God’s Word, to receive Baptism, the Sacrament, absolution, and are also true, holy Christians . . . Even nature and God’s creation makes this distinction, implying that women (much less children or fools) cannot and shall not occupy positions of sovereignty, as experience also suggests and as Moses says in Genesis 3[:16], You shall be subject to man. The Gospel, however, does not abrogate this natural law, but confirms it as the ordinance and creation of God.

Illud etiam a quibusdam suggestum est, ut contra Apostolicam disciplinam incognito usque in hoc tempus in ministerium feminae nescio quo loco leviticum videantur adsumptae. Quod quidem, quia indecens est, non admittit ecclesiastica disciplina et contra rationem facta talis ordinatio distruatur. Providendum, ne quis sibi hoc ultra praesumat.

Canon II, The Council of Nemaunense, France; A.D. 394
Feminism, so strongly a part of secular pagan society at the time of the Early Church, continually intruded into the Scripturally ordered Christian society. The ever-present pagan feminism always stood in opposition to the teachings and traditions of The Apostles. Yet we have the clear Word of God and faithful witness of The Church against such human wisdom and theological shallowness evident in present day Christendom. If we give up the passages of Scripture that have been clear historically and used by orthodoxy to defend the rule of faith in favor of passages where exceptions have been made, we give up the rules in favor of exceptions. Those who believe conflicting interpretatons of God’s Word exclude there being one correct interpretaion have given up the Bible as truth simply because others deny that truth (Fr. Paul R. Harris, “Raw Nerve or FEBA?” in The Bride of Christ, Vol. XXIII, No. 1, 1998).

For many decades now, the god of Mohammed (i.e., Satan) has enduced and convinced previously Christian jurisdictions to adopt and espouse a theology and practice of The Holy Priesthood outside that commanded by God in Holy Scripture and historically taught and maintained within The Body of Christ since Her founding. With the ordination and acceptance of the first female clergy, such jurisdictions abandon The Church; they are thus theologically and doctrinally dead. Their ministry thus ceases to be a Christian ministry; they cease to be within or part of The Church . Those clergy who oppose this imposition of such an anti-Christian practice yet remain within these jurisdictions now allowing (or even encouraging) it (e.g., PECUSA) are silently (and perhaps unknowingly) accepting their status within a New, Pagan “ministry” outside and apart from that instituted by Our Lord and Redeemer, Jesus the Christ. By remaining within a jurisdiction which is clearly not Catholic and certainly not Orthodox, they “accept” the new “Order” within their church and thus became pagan clergy themselves.

Once a previously Christian jurisdiction gives up the clear Word of God and the faithful witness of The Church against such human wisdom and theological shallowness and adopts this pagan, secular ideology by which to govern, proclaim and interpret its doctrine and practices (i.e., ordaining females to the office and work of the priesthood), it is only a matter of time (as recent history clearly demonstrates) before it is ready to adventure into other areas of secular philosophy and pagan theology.

When females are admitted to the offices of deacon, priest, and/or Bishop, such a jurisdiction allowing this pagan custom no longer has a valid, Biblical, historic, Catholic or Orthodox priesthood. And without a valid priesthood, what DOES such a jurisdiction possess? What can it offer? What does it teach/profess? Can any of the Sacraments (with the possible exception of Holy Baptism) be considered valid by The Church when celebrated by a member of such a pagan and non-Biblical priesthood?

The “theological” arguments supposedly supporting the ordination of women to the priesthood are ultimately opposed to the Christian Faith and its teachings about salvation. This “theology” shares a secular feminist philosophy, strengthened by the pagan Women’s Movement. And thus it is a secular ideology and not The Holy Spirit which has undergirded and promoted the cause of women’s ordination. Any jurisdiction which therefore ordains women as priests has clearly and unequivocally placed itself outside The Body of Christ (The Church) and aligned itself with paganism.

The Evangelical Catholic Church retains The Sacrament of Repentance (Augsburg ConfessionXI & XXV), which is an effective means of imparting the grace of God. I will not allow anyone to deprive me of private confession, Dr. Luther writes, nor would I exchange it for all the treasures of the whole world, for I know what strength and consolation it has given me. When the Christian’s new life in Christ is lost through sin, it needs to be restored. When it is endangered through complacency, lethargy, or weakness, it needs to be strengthened. For these purposes God instituted the ministry of Private Absolution. We are forgiven, not because of our contrition, but because of the promise of Christ to His priests: Whatever you will bind on earth shall be bound in Heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in Heaven (Apology IV, 397). Hence the voice of the priest pronouncing absolution is to believed in no other way than as the living voice of The Gospel (Apology XII, 40).

The Evangelical Catholic Church accepts the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of The Old and The New Testaments as the sole rule and standard according to which all doctrine and practice, together with all priests and teachers, should be estimated and judged (ECC Canons, II,2). We believe, with the entire Church Catholic, that The Book of The Church, The Holy Bible, is the verbally inspired, inerrant, Spirit-breathed Word of God which contains all things necessary to salvation and that the other elements of Holy Tradition are in full accord with Its contents. Our Lord and The Apostles first taught orally; when their teachings were written down, they were recognized and “canonized” by The Church (during the last half of the 2nd century) as “The New Testament.” We do not read the Scriptures as isolated individuals, interpreting it only by the light of our private understanding or in terms of current speculations about source, form, or higher criticism. We read The Holy Bible as members of The Church, in communion with all the other members throughout the centuries. It is only with the consensus of The Church, guided by The Holy Spirit, that a proper interpretation of Holy Scripture is possible.

“It is one thing to reject the books [of the Holy Bible] as a whole . . . as the pagans reject our Scripture . . . and it is another thing to say, ‘This holy man wrote only the truth, and this is his epistle, but some verses are his and some are not.’ . . . Such a method, rather, is but the last gasp of an heretic . . . ”

St. Augustine, Contra Faustum, XI,2
We believe it is most appropriate — as did the ancient Fathers — that the Holy Scriptures be considered part of the Holy Tradition of The Church. Important elements of Holy Tradition also include the Ecumenical Creeds, Scriptural interpretation, and The Divine Liturgy. These other elements of Holy Tradition remain in full accord with the contents of Holy Scripture. Any element of Tradition which deviates from the standard of The Holy Bible indicates thereby that it is not Holy Tradition.

The Evangelical Catholic Church, with The Council of Ephesus (A.D. 431), confesses Saint Mary as Theotokos — God-Bearer, a title affirmed in The Formula of Concord (VIII, Ep. 12; Solid Declaration, 24). In this title, Theotokos (Mother of God), She confesses that a single, undivided person Who is God and man at one and the same time, was born of a sinful human being. The Evangelical Catholic Church also considers Saint Mary Ever Virgin, a title affirmed in The Smalcald Articles (Part One, IV [Latin]), and She recognizes her as that Most Praiseworthy Virgin (Augsburg Confession III, 1 [German]; Formula of Concord VIII; Solid Declaration 100 [Latin]). Ever mindful that, although Blessed Mary prays for The Church, she does not receive souls in death, overcome death, nor give life (Apology XXI, 27), The Evangelical Catholic Church gives God-pleasing honor to The Blessed Virgin and to all the saints.

This honor is threefold. The first is thanksgiving: we should thank God for showing examples of His mercy, revealing His will to save men, and giving teachers and other gifts to The Church. Since these [saints] are His greatest gifts, we should extol them very highly; we should also praise the saints themselves for using these gifts, just as Christ praises faithful businessmen (Matt. 25:21,23).

The second honor is strengthening of our faith: when we see [Saint] Peter forgiven after his denial, we are encouraged to believe that grace does indeed abound more than sin (Rom. 5:20). The third honor is the imitation, first of their faith and then of their other virtues, which each should imitate in accordance with his calling.

Apology to the Augsburg Confession, XXI, 4-7
We thus include in The Kalendar the following feasts of Our Lady:

February 2: The Purification
March 25: The Annunciation
July 2: The Visitation
August 15: The Dormition
September 8: The Nativity
The Evangelical Catholic Church, acknowledging that the ancients spoke of prayer for the dead, does not forbid such a practice. Our Confessions (Apology XXIV, 94,96) state the following: Epiphanius testifies that Aerius believed that prayers for the dead were useless [Epiphanius, Panarion, 75:2,3,7]. This he rejects. We do not support Aerius either. As The Society of The Incarnate Word reminds us, we should remember when considering prayers for the dead that we do not pray in order to change God’s mind or to make Him remember something He has forgotten. Rather, we pray in order that WE might remember that all things come from God, that He has in His keeping our departed loved ones.

We certainly do not pray the departed out of Purgatory, nor do we believe that our prayers change the state of the dead. Rather, our intercessions are a declaration of our faith that God is giving the faithful departed peace and rest, they are a form of thanking God for the examples He has given us in the lives and deeds of our fellow-members in the communion of saints, and they are a reminder that we are called to imitate their faith.

The Catholic Church has never condemned prayers for the faithful departed. Perhaps the best way to explain how and why Christians pray for their dead is to quote the parody of Dr. Luther’s Small Catechism, as written by The Society of The Incarnate Word:

God gives peace to the faithful departed indeed without our prayer, but we pray in this petition that He would lead us to know it and to acknowledge it with thanksgiving.

Thus The Evangelical Catholic Church emphasizes Her Catholicity. It is important to do so. Without such an emphasis our vision of The Church is narrowed to one particular denomination, to one very limited period of time, to one locality, to one national or ethnic group. She claims as Her own the magnificent heritage and the world-wide scope that Christ has bestowed upon His Holy Bride; She is a contemporary manifestation of The Church of all times, of all people, of all places.

I believe in the Holy Catholic Church
(The Apostles’ Creed)

No man can have God for his father who has not the Church for his mother.
(St. Cyprian)

Our Incarnate God Jesus Christ divinely instituted THE CHURCH in His sacrificial death and resurrection from the dead. In this supreme act of vicarious atonement, God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto Himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them. The Reconciliation of the world unto Himself through His Christ is the very basis of The Church, for without this Reconciliation there could be no Church at all. This is why it can be called “my Church” by Christ, for it is indeed His Church through His Reconciling Death and Resurrection. I will build my Church, He says, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. He can also say much the same thing when He asserts that He is the “Cornerstone,” when clearly alluding to The Church, as having been built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone.

If it is Christ’s Reconciliation of Man to God that is, at root, the basis of The Church, then one can quickly discern the need for the proclamation of this Divine Word. At the time of His Ascension our Lord committed this very same word of reconciliation to His called servants, the Apostles. The Apostles and their Successors (that is, The Holy Ministry) is called in The Scriptures Christ’s gift to His Church. It is their most marvelous mandate, after first being given to The Church as a gift, to begin the proclamation to God’s people of the gift of reconciliation between man and God. Now then, the Apostle Paul writes, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ’s stead, be ye reconciled to God. It is only through this beseeching or calling — evidenced both in The Grace of the Word and The Grace of the Sacraments — that the Reconciliation can actually take root in the hearts of the listeners.

The Church, then, becomes the place where the Reconciliation of Christ is — the place where the Reconciliation is proclaimed, and the place where there is a response to this reconciling proclamation on the part of people. The response comes, however, only through the power of The Holy Spirit, for it is the Spirit that quickeneth. Indeed, the Spirit does not come apart from the word of reconciliation, but is bestowed with that very same word of reconciliation and at the same time gives it His power. Saint Paul reminds the Thessalonians that, Our Gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power and in the Holy Ghost and in much assurance. In all of these most remarkable Words of Scripture, we note how (1) Christ’s Church (all of those called to Reconciliation), (2) Christ’s Gospel (the Word of Reconciliation), and (3) Christ’s Ambassadors (those who proclaim the Reconciliation) are all suffused with the Holy Spirit, forming a unifying complementarity and reciprocal relationship.

In Christ’s Reconciliation, The Church as the Place of the Reconciliation, is at one and the same time both old and new. She is old because, in a certain real sense, The Church began already with the first Gospel promise of our God given to Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. She is new because it is only with the coming of Christ and His Reconciliation that the community of the reconciled has been transformed, being taken from the Old Testament to the New. In the Reconciliation of Christ, The Church has been perfected through the realization of all the Divine Promises made in Him. In so doing, the New Israel (the Church) superseded the Israel found within the Old.

It is axiomatic that our Incarnate God instituted a Church that is truly incarnate in this world — as incarnate as the Old Testament Church was, and the Apostles and the visible means of grace of the sacraments are. The incarnational aspect of The Church is evident in the multitudinous references of the Apostles to the geographically-constituted Churches that had developed around the Mediterranean Sea. Thus, St. Paul can refer to the Church at Corinth or to the Church at Jerusalem. In each individual case, The Church was the place where the word of reconciliation had been proclaimed and where the called had responded through the power of the Holy Spirit. Martin Luther describes this empirical, historical Church as the number or multitude of the baptized and believing who belong to a priest or bishop, whether in a city, or in a whole land, or in the whole world. There is no other Church than the historical, actual, concrete Orthodox Catholic Church which stems from Christ and His Apostles, and which is founded on the Word of God and the Sacraments in whose service the ministry of the Church is engaged. Membership in this Church is necessary to salvation, as Luther again says, for outside of the Christian Church is no truth, no Christ, no salvation.

It is in this sense that the Lutheran Reformers described the Marks of the Church (notae ecclesiae), meaning the place where one could point to The Church’s existence in the world, as being the place where the Gospel is taught purely and the sacraments are administered rightly.

Though one can point to The One Church of The New Testament as truly incarnational — as existing where the Gospel is taught purely and the sacraments administered rightly — it is also true to say that Her incarnational existence is not necessarily coëxtensive with any ordered structure. Which is to say, every single individual gathered around those same Gospel and sacraments is not necessarily a true member of The Church, even as every Israelite in The Church living under the Old Testament was not a part of the true Israel. According to Saint Paul, only those who were chosen obtained the relationship with God that they were seeking. In the same way, Saint Matthew maintains the distinction in The Church between those called and those chosen with the words many are called, but few are chosen. Only those who are united with Christ through being chosen by the Holy Spirit, through the ministrations of the Church, are in actuality within the Church. Saint John maintains this same distinction when he says: They went out from us, but they were not of us. There had been some that had been with us, but they were not of us. Within the Church, then, there are both true believers and hypocrites, commingled together; the Church is to allow both to grow together until the harvest, when they shall finally be separated.

The One Church, therefore, can be said to have two aspects: (1) an outer aspect, which is made up of priests, bishops,. sermons, and the like and (2) an inner aspect, which is spiritual and invisible, located in the heart. While The Church, with respect to its outer aspect, is all those who belong to a priest or Bishop, as Dr. Luther asserts, with respect to its inner aspect She is an assembly of all the believers who truly trust in Christ for the forgiveness of sins and salvation, the elect. Because of its consummate importance, this aspect of The Church is often given precedence by calling it the real or true Church, or the Church properly understood, as our Confessions state while continuing to confess both aspects of The One Church.

For this reason we have added the Eighth Article, lest anyone might think that we separate the wicked and hypocrites from the outward fellowship of the Church. . . . For we grant that in this life hypocrites and wicked men have been mingled with the Church, and that they are members of the Church according to the outward fellowship of the signs of the Church. . . . But the Church is not only the fellowship of outward objects and rites, as other governments; put it is originally a fellowship of faith and of the Holy Ghost in hearts.
The relation between the two aspects of The Church should not cause one to minimize or despise either aspect, and specifically the outer aspect, even as we do not despise the human nature of our Lord Jesus Christ. These two aspects of The One Church are to be carefully distinguished, but not separated. Clearly, one can discern the extreme effort that is taken in our Confessions to carefully distinguish between the outer and the inner aspects — giving each its specific due — but without separating the two aspects. As Dr. Martin Luther says, they are related to one another as body and soul are related in man. For it is the Word and Sacraments, as externally and sensibly set forth, that call into existence the inner spiritual Church. Therefore, it is of prime importance that everyone be in the inner spiritual Church, but one always enters into Her through the Word and Sacraments disseminated in the outer.

At His Ascension to be our Intercessor and Advocate, our Lord commanded His Apostles to be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth. Thus began the divine mission of The Church, which continues to this very day — a mission to the whole world, to bring all mankind into an eternal relationship with their God. This was a salvific mission — not a social mission.

But His Ascension does not mean that He has abandoned His Church. I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you. This was the promise of the Holy Spirit, Who constitutes The Church ever anew by bringing the reconciliation of man to God achieved by Christ to fruition through the Means of Grace. The Spirit continues the ministry of Christ within the Church so that the Church becomes the continuing Incarnation of Christ, for He shall testify of Me and He shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. The Holy Spirit is active in every aspect of the life of The Church, for The Church is constituted by The Spirit working through the Means of Grace and She is sanctified through The Word (the pure teaching) and Sacraments.

The Church has been given the authority to properly undertake Her task. The Church was not to formulate new teaching. No, She is simply to pass on the apostolic deposit, the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints. But at the same time, She was not to be at the mercy of heretical thought or immoral behaviour. Already during the period of oral tradition in the first generations of The Church, before the Bible was written and its canon recognized, the Apostles and the first Presbyter-Bishops had brought external order under the Spirit’s authority and guidance. The result was an emerging liturgical worship on an established day, credal forms, an incipient canon of acknowledged writings, an organized ministry with ordination and succession from the apostles through the Presbyter-Bishops, apostolic injunctions regarding deaconess lists, communion wear for women and excommunication for manifest sinners.

It is as true as can be that the true church cannot be separated from the true doctrine of faith. For that is the true church which embraces and confesses the true and sound doctrine of the word of God. But when that body of men which has the title of the church departs from the true doctrine of the Word of God, it does not follow on that account, either that the sound doctrine is false, or that the errors, which that body of men holds, are the truth; but this follows, that that body of men, when it no longer has the true doctrine, is not the true church. Therefore the truth of the Word of God does not depend on the church. . . . but on the contrary, the truth of the church depends on and is judged by the truth of the Word of God, which it holds and confesses. . . . This, too, must be considered, that also in the true church hay, wood, stubble are often built on the foundation, according to 1 Cor. 3: 12.
Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent, Vol. 1, 163.

It is not true that The Church has ultimate responsibility over the Scriptures, neither is it true that the Scriptures is to have its authority apart from the Church, but the Scriptures are within the Church, as a baby within the cradle, and The Church continually hears and acknowledges both the number of those Scriptures and their divine content.

An agreement with the Apostolic Teaching was the sine qua non of fellowship in The Church of the Apostles. Both St. Paul and St. John talk of a separation with those that deviated from apostolic ethical injunctions (1 Cor. 5: 1-13; 2 Thess. 3: 6) and apostolic teaching on various topics (Rom. 16: 17; Gal. 1: 9; 2 Tim. 2: 14-19; 2 John 10. 11). This fellowship was visually expressed in a common partaking of the Holy Sacrament. This denial of sacramental fellowship to those who deviated from the Orthodox Catholic Faith was accepted by all parties in the Early Church. Thus there was no sacramental fellowship between the various “confessions” of the Marcionites, Montanists, Novatianists, Donatists, and the Orthodox Catholics, all of which existed at the same time and often in the same city. For the true unity of this one holy church it is enough to agree concerning the teaching of the Gospel and the administration of the sacraments, is the way that the Lutherans of the sixteenth century expressed the same sentiment.

From the second century on, The Church was known as THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. She was not a new Church, but She took this name to distinguish Herself from schismatic and heretical groups that grew up at this time. She retained the name “Catholic” because of Her world-wide extension and Her orthodoxy. Having grown from Her first days in Jerusalem, depicted in the Acts of the Apostles, Shet spread around the entire world. Christ is still present; the Holy Spirit still is operative; the Church continues Her ministrations. All of this takes place within a coöperative unity, as Saint Augustine of Hippo stated in his time and place:

The Church is spread throughout the whole world: all nations have the Church. Let no one deceive you; it is the true, it is the Catholic Church. Christ we have not seen, but we have her; let us believe as regards Him. The Apostles on the contrary saw Him, they believed as regards her. . . . They saw Christ, they believed in the Church which they did not see; and we who see the Church, let us believe in Christ, whom we do not yet see.
The two-fold aspect of The Church continued in the thinking of the faithful Church Fathers. Saint Augustine of Hippo, for instance, maintained that. . . even he who in carnal obduracy is mingled with the congregation of the saints is always separated from the unity of that church which is without spot or wrinkle. The two-fold conception of The Church as having both an outer and an inner aspect was to suffer an eclipse after Saint Augustine, but was to be reässerted at the time of the Lutheran Reformation.

It is manifestly evident that the early Church Fathers viewed The Church not as a system which dropped finished, perfect, and complete from Heaven to earth, but as a divinely created and nurtured living organism which had to pass through a gradual process of growth, subject to every possible form of hindrance, repression, suppression, crises, and reäction. Growth, or development, then is to be seen as the inevitable consequence of the incarnation of the Church. To consider the embryonic stage of the organism as the unchangeable, immutable standard, is a sign of abstract and mechanical doctrinarianism.

Development, however, in the organism of the Church, must be appropriate to its proper sphere of operation, whether it be doctrinal or ecclesiastical. Doctrinal development (and its necessary corollary, doctrinal practice) must always evidence a true working-out of the Apostolic Deposit within a particular historical period. Accepting as a foundation those clear and plain statements of Holy Scripture, development is appropriate as it proceeds in undeniable deductive steps according to the anologia fidei. In the history of The Church, proper deductive steps according to the anologia fidei, have been undertaken with regard to the doctrine of the Trinity, in Christology, the doctrine of Grace, the Sacraments of Baptism and Holy Communion, and the Communion of Saints, among others. We see here a Divinely-willed, Divinely-governed development, the character of which is really and truly öcumenical because it took place uniformly both in the East and in the West. Proceeding from a different foundation, such as the pious thoughts of The Church or through an arrogation of the authority of The Church, has been undertaken with disastrous results.

It is also true that there is a process of ecclesiastical development. The authority and freedom to undertake this growth is derived from the Freedom and Authority bestowed upon The Church by Christ. Building on the authoritative foundation that had already been laid in the Apostlic Age, the Orthodox Catholic Church in all freedom proclaimed Creeds, Confessions, Councils, Canons and Liturgy in an attempt to order Herself, catechize the Faithful, and protect Herself from false teaching and schism.

It is clear that, just as today, there is a certain measure of differences in the ancient undivided Church. This is to be expected in such a large geographical area lasting over seven centuries. Nevertheless, to one who discerns, there exists a profound agreement one can see in their public testimonies of creeds, councils and liturgies. The evidence of this unity can even be seen in the acceptance of the Seven Öcumenical Councils.

The sixteenth century Reformers of The Lutheran Confessional Movement believed wholeheartedly that they were still within and connected with The Orthodox Catholic Church that reached back through the Fathers to Christ. They did not intend, nor did they in fact, begin a new church. They boldly confessed that they in reality continued the true Western Catholic Church: We do not concede to them (the Papists) that they are the Church. . . .

The Lutheran Fathers of the sixteenth century saw themselves, then, as a Confessing Movement within The One Holy Catholic Church, and attempted to restore Orthodoxy to the Western Church utilizing a most conservative principle. They would reject only those features which seemed to them to be expressly forbidden by Holy Scripture while retaining those features which were, on the one hand, expressly witnessed to by Holy Scripture or, on the other hand, matters of adiaphora. Thus, while continuing to confess the three Öcumenical Creeds of the ancient Church, they added other Confessions which they promulgated for öcumenical acceptance, only where they were forced to do so by manifest error. The important question of schism, which had last been a major issue officially in 1054 A.D., was not to be laid at their feet. They asserted that since our opponents would not tolerate the truth, and dared to promote manifest errors by force, it is easy to judge who is guil ty of schism.

Our Lutheran Confessions affirmed the two-fold aspect of The Church, as we have related. While distinguishing the two aspects, they deliberately do not separate the two aspects, but maintain the unity of The One Church. They even go so far as to assert that hypocrites are members of this true Church. but only according to outward rites.

Although, therefore, hypocrites and wicked men are members of this true Church according to outward rites, yet when the Church is defined, it is necessary to define that which is the living body of Christ, and which is in name and in fact the Church.
Neither did they see themselves as confessing a new doctrine. They confessed repeatedly that in Her doctrine there is nothing that varies from the Scriptures or from The Catholic Church, and that they take most diligent care that no new doctrine should creep into our churches, for a new doctrine would be neither Scriptural nor an Orthodox Catholic doctrine. Their desire was to remove the Roman accretions and abberations from the true Orthodox Catholic doctrine of The Western Church.

Furthermore, they stood directly in the Orthodox Catholic mainstream of the liturgical and canonical tradition of the Church.

But we cheerfully maintain the old traditions made in the Church for the sake of usefulness and tranquillity; and we interpret them in a more moderate way, to the exclusion of the opinion which holds that they justify. And our enemies falsely accuse us of abolishing good ordinances and church-discipline. For we can truly declare that the public form of the churches is more becoming with us than with the adversaries. And if anyone will consider it aright, we conform to the canons more truly than do the adversaries.
The Evangelical Catholic Church confesses that She is a part of The Lutheran Confessional Movement within The One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. Our Synods have consistently affirmed their acceptance of the Confessio Augustana of 1530. The Evangelical Catholic Church is, therefore, not a new interpretation of Christianity, not a new party or a denomination which came into existence thirty years ago, or almost one and a half centuries ago in reäction to Vatican I, or even some 480 years ago during The Lutheran Reformation. She is an integral part of that Body which Our Lord addressed when He said: I am the vine, ye are the branches; and Lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the ages.

The Evangelical Catholic Church believes that The Church, which cannot err, is taught and illuminated by The Holy Spirit working through the holy Fathers and Doctors of the Orthodox Catholic Church. The Church is the pillar and bulwark of the truth, writes Dr. Martin Luther, built on the rock, and called holy and irreproachable (Eph. 2: 21). Thus one rightly and truly says, The Church cannot err, for God’s word, which She teaches, cannot err. But whatever else is taught or whatever is not with certainty God’s word, cannot be the doctrine of The Church, but must be the doctrine, falsehood, and idolatry of the devil. The Spirit is not found apart from The Church, for He is found only wherever The Word is preached in Its truth and purity and The Holy Mysteries are rightly observed.

The Evangelical Catholic Church confesses that by her incorporation into The Church she has retained the Prophetic, Priestly, and Kingly Offices of The Church. The Prophetic Office is to bear witness to the Truth that has been disseminated by her Divine Head, to authenticate the true interpretation of the Holy Scriptures which is passed down in the Church, and to condemn all erroneous teachings. Through Her Priestly Office The Evangelical Catholic Church dispenses the life-giving Gospel and Sacraments, being efficacious through the Sacrifice of our Lord Jesus Christ and brought to us through the Holy Spirit. Through Her Kingly Office The Evangelical Catholic Church carries out the divine command of binding and loosening sins, instituting spiritual discipline, and ecclesiastical precepts. While The Evangelical Catholic Church has absolutely no authority to institute new doctrines, she does have authority to judge concerning whether or not such doctrines are being properly taught within the public ministry. In addition, She retains authority in the area that is commonly called adiaphora, that is, matters neither commanded nor denied by the Holy Scriptures. Such areas of adiaphora are the liturgy, canons, etc.

In carrying out her prophetic office, The Evangelical Catholic Church believes and teaches The Faith of the ancient undivided Church, as witnessed in The Three Öcumenical Creeds (Apostles’, Nicene, Athanasian) and The Seven Öcumenical Councils. We confess the ancient Church Fathers as our Fathers. As a testimony of Her preserving the wholeness of the full and true Faith of Jesus our God, The Evangelical Catholic Church espouses The Rule of Saint Vincent of Lerins (A.D. 434):

Id teneamus, quod ubique, quod semper, quod ob omnibus est; hoc est etenim vere propieque catholicum.

We maintain what everywhere and always by everyone has been believed, this being truly and actually Catholic.
In addition, The Evangelical Catholic Church believes and teaches The Faith of The Lutheran Confessional Movement of the sixteenth century, insofar as the Reformers confessed again the ancient Scriptural and Orthodox Catholic Faith, or reconfessed a Truth which had been lost or subverted by Rome over the centuries. Thus, She preserves the fullness of the Catholic Faith, and takes the name The Evangelical Catholic Church as evidence of this understanding. As a testimony of Her doctrinal orthodoxy, She submits this entire document (and its supporting documents), including the following brief summary of beliefs:

The Holy Trinity. The Evangelical Catholic Church firmly believes and confesses the mystery of The All-Holy Trinity, by all creation to be ever blessed, glorified and adored.

Creation. The Evangelical Catholic Church confesses that God is the Maker of Heaven and earth, and that He has accomplished His creation in six days. God continues to uphold His creation so that nothing takes place apart from His active or concessive Will.

Jesus Christ. Concerning our Lord Jesus Christ, The Evangelical Catholic Church confesses the Catholic Faith as expressed in both Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition. Jesus Christ is True God and True Man in one undivided and unmixed Personal Union. He is true God, man’s Only Savior,

Begotten, not made, one in being with the Father. Through Him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation He came down from heaven; by the power of The Holy Spirit He was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man. For our sake He was crucified under Pontius Pilate; He suffered, died, and was buried. He arose on the third day in fulfillment of The Scriptures. He entered into Heaven and is seated at the right hand of The Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and His kingdom will have no end.
Election. The Evangelical Catholic Church confesses and believes that all those who have been called and persevered in the true faith, have been elected unto salvation in eternity, not because of any merit in them, but solely out of the gracious love of God. Therefore all believers should have an assurance of their salvation and should continue to live their lives in faith, trusting only in the mercy of God.

The Means of Grace. The Evangelical Catholic Church believes that God’s grace is objectively distributed to man through channels or means: the Word of the Gospel and the Holy Mysteries (what are commonly called Sacraments).

THE HOLY GOSPEL is the Divine offer of forgiveness and reconciliation to all who come into contact with it. It is not a tentative or probationary offer, but is an objective, real, and complete offer, which is accepted only through faith grasping the promise of God.

THE SACRAMENT OF ILLUMINATION incorporates the individual fully into The Body of Christ and bestows the gift of the Holy Spirit. It regenerates the candidate through the forgiveness of sin; to be baptized and chrismated is to become a full member of The Church, to put on Jesus and become a living part of Him.

THE SACRAMENT OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST is the offer and reception of the true Body and Blood of Our Lord and Savior for the forgiveness of all sin, a public confession of our faith in Christ Jesus as the One True God, and a celebration of our unity with angels and archangels and all the hosts of Heaven.
Justification. The Evangelical Catholic Church teaches that salvation is not something which man can or must earn through works, for salvation is a gift freely given to us by our loving God because of Jesus. It is received or appropriated solely by faith, according to the words of the Apostle, For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: not of works, lest any man should boast. Whatever merit is required for salvation was earned by Christ Jesus and imputed to us.

Sanctification. Our response to this free gift of salvation must be a vibrant faith manifested by the way we live our lives (i.e., good works). Just as soon as The Holy Spirit has incorporated us into The Body of Christ (The Church), He requires us, with the power and gifts He supplies, to fully participate (with all our intelligence, skills and being) in and at every stage of the process by which we are transformed by Him from sinners into holy people (Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration II, 65; XI, 21).

Christian Freedom We believe that the Christian is truly spiritually free — free from the demands of the condemning Law. In addition, he is ceremonially free to utilize whatever confessions, liturgies, monastic life, devotional practices, temporary vows, etc., that may be properly utilized to assist him in furthering his Christian life and witness. A Christian is not free to act lovelessly to his neighbor or to the other saints within The Church.

Holy Ministry. The Evangelical Catholic Church confesses the Divine institution of the Holy Ministry, its Divine authority, and its Divine responsibility to rule in The Church. Acknowledging that The Holy Ministry does not derive its right and authority as being transferred from the local congregation of believers, but proceeds from the general call of the Apostles, She has adopted that ecclesiastical polity which The Book of Concord espouses and prefers, the emergency long ago having ended. The Sacred Ministry (Deacon, Priest, Bishop) is a Divine institution based upon a Divine commission and is one of the constitutive marks (nota ecclesiae) of The Church, having received its beginning and its mission directly from our Lord Himself and from The Holy Apostles (vide: Titus 1:5)..

Priesthood of All Believers. The Evangelical Catholic Church believes in the priesthood of all believers and in the proper role of the laity. The priesthood of all believers is, first of all, an image of The Church, and then by implication pictures the mutual ministry of love that is to be undertaken first of all toward other believers and then to the entire world. Such a priestly ministry produces a sweet savour of Christ which ascends to the High Priest in Heaven. She believes that the primary role of the laity is a ministry to the world, and only in a limited sense is their ministry to be directed to the external matters of The Church. She believes that a proper distinction between those called into public ministry and those called as priests in a “private” ministry is witnessed by the Holy Scriptures and the entire Church up until the most recent days. The Evangelical Catholic Church, together with the whole Orthodox Catholic Church, affirms that the laity does not have the authority to rule in The Church, and therefore She does not believe or teach congregationalism (the belief that the final authority in ecclesiastical matters is to be found in the priesthood of all believers assembled in a congregational setting). Such a view in no way denies the possibility of determining the preferences of the laity on an ecclesiastical matter.

Holy Scriptures The Evangelical Catholic Church accepts the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of The Old and The New Testaments as the only judge, rule, and standard, according to which, as the only test-stone, all dogmas shall and must be discerned and judged. We believe that The Holy Bible is the verbally inspired, inerrant, Spirit-breathed Word of God and that Holy Scripture contains all things necessary to salvation. We believe that it is most appropriate, as the ancient Fathers did, that the Holy Scriptures are considered to be a part — the supreme part — of the Holy Tradition of the Church. It is only with the consensus of the Holy Tradition of The Church, guided by The Holy Spirit, that a proper interpretation of Holy Scripture is possible.

Holy Tradition. Such Holy Tradition The Evangelical Catholic Church believes to be The Three Öcumenical Creeds, orthodox Scriptural interpretation, and the Divine Liturgy of the worshipers of God. We believe that other elements of Holy Tradition, while remaining subservient and derivative to the Truth and Authority of the Holy Scriptures, remain in full agreement with Its contents. It is the role of the Faithful to witness to this full agreement by their reception of The Holy Tradition. Any element of Tradition which deviates from this full agreement, or is coerced out of a desire for worldly power or some other impure motive, indicates eo ipso, that it is not Holy Tradition. It is on the latter point that The Evangelical Catholic Church ignores the filioque clause politically and unilaterally added to the Nicene Creed by The Church of Rome.

Church Fellowship. The Evangelical Catholic Church believes, with the Holy Scriptures and the Holy Fathers, that the Holy Eucharist is the locus for a demonstration of a God-pleasing fellowship in The Faith. The Sacrament, in its demonstration of unity, is for those baptized believers who maintain one Lord, one faith, one baptism and who are diligent to preserve the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. The Evangelical Catholic Church confesses that the Church is One and views the Confessio Augustana as a truly irenic and öcumenical document, and says with it that we . . . are prepared to confer amicably concerning all possible ways and means, in order that we may come together, as far as this may be honorably done. .. and we here in no wise are holding back anything that could bring about Christian concord. … This true ecumenical drive continues even today so that a most important effort of the Church is the attempt to manifest in a visible manner the oneness of the Church, either through a visible union or at least inter-communion. Therefore She is grateful for the efforts made by The Öcumenical Movement of the 21st century insofar as it brings members to a greater appreciation of the doctrinal truths of the Orthodox Catholic Faith. She eschews all efforts to bring together Churches without true agreement in The Faith. We confess the unity that is to be found in a mutual sharing of The Eucharist, but assert that sharing the Eucharist is the goal of Church unity and not the means whereby it can be achieved.

Communion of Saints. The Evangelical Catholic Church believes that The Church is comprised of both The Church Militant on earth and The Church Triumphant in Heaven and that there is a degree of mutual interaction between the two. Believing thus in the communion of saints, She gives God-pleasing honor to all the saints, mindful of the injunction to remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the ends of their conversation.

The Last Things. The Evangelical Catholic Church confesses that we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come.

Thus The Evangelical Catholic Church emphasizes Her Evangelical and Catholic spirit. Both aspects are necessary to explain her position.

The Evangelical Catholic Church considers Herself to be truly Evangelical. This is necessary, so that The Church understands Her true position of being created by the Lord for the purpose of disseminating the Evangel through Word and Sacrament. To consider Herself in any other light is to turn insular and legalistic. She considers Herself to be Protestant according to the original meaning of the term given at the Diet of Speyer in A.D. 1529; She does not consider Herself to be Protestant in the modem sense of the term. Protestantizing notions such as the jettisoning of the historic liturgy, the denial of baptismal regeneration, the denial of the Real Presence in the Sacrament of Holy Communion, the closed-minded and bigoted reäction to many devotional and sacramental practices of long-standing in The Church, the reduction of the Holy Church to a mere “clubbish” and individualistic mentality replete with psycho-social societies all centered on the cult of pastoral personality, and the denigration of the Means of Grace inherent in the espousal of so-called Church Growth Methods, are all anathema to Her, and sound the death-knell to a true evangelical catholicity.

The Evangelical Catholic Church considers Herself to be truly Catholic. This, also, is important. Without such an emphasis our vision of The Church is narrowed to one particular denomination, to one very limited period of time, to one locality, to one national or ethnic group, and, in the process, becomes insular and idiosyncratic in doctrine, practice and ethos. The Evangelical Catholic Church considers Herself to be Catholic according to the understanding of the Confessio Augustana; She does not consider Herself to be Catholic according to the manner in which many people of the modem period use the term, i.e., meaning Roman Catholic. Romanizing notions such as the extreme claims of the Bishop of Rome, the dogmatic claims about the Assumption of Mary, legalism in doctrine and practice, the transsubstantiation and Sacrifice of the Mass, and a close-minded and bigoted reäction to the fruit of the Lutheran Reformation and a yearning for anything pre-Reformation, despite its being non-Catholic, are all anathema to Her and also sound the death-knell to a true evangelical catholicity.

The Evangelical Catholic Church is a contemporary manifestation of The Church of all times, of all people, of all places. She claims as Her own the magnificent heritage and the world-wide scope that Christ has bestowed upon His Holy Bride.

The Church was promised by Our Lord Jesus Christ (in the person of His Disciples) that when The Holy Spirit should come He would lead Her “into all truth” (John 16:13). Saint Paul, writing to Saint Timothy, declared The Church to be the “pillar and ground of the truth” (I Tim. 3:15). Dr. Martin Luther wrote that “the Church is the pillar and bulwark of the truth, built on the rock, and called holy and irreproachable (Eph. 2:21).” The Holy Spirit thus exercises a ministry of teaching and oversight in The Church, as demonstrated throughout Her history, and protects Her from error and preserves Her in the one true Faith.

History demonstrates that all who have gone into schism from The Church have eventually fallen into error. The schism of the Church of Rome has, perhaps, produced the most errors. These made The Reformation necessary, where Fr. Martin Luther and Archbishop Laurentius Petri (and his brother, Olavus) tried to both correct the many abuses propagated by the Papacy and to return the Church in the West once again to Orthodoxy.

One of the most serious errors fostered by the Papacy and unfortunately perpetuated by the Protestant Reformation has been the denial of Holy Communion to infants and young children. That denial is most likely the result of Rome’s rite of Confirmation, which, although the sacramental nature was denied by most Protestants, was essentially retained by the Reformers.

The New Testament makes it clear that the proper understanding of Holy Communion flows out of a proper understanding of The Church. The Fathers of the Early Church consistently defined The Church as the Eucharistic Community gathered under the direction of the Bishop to manifest the total presence of Christ Jesus, especially in the celebration of The Holy Eucharist. St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, expressed this understanding when he wrote, shortly before his martyrdom (c. A.D. 110):
Where the Bishop is present, there let the congregation gather, just as where Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church. Without the Bishop’s supervision, no baptisms or love feasts [celebrations of Holy Communion] are permitted.
— Smyrneans 8:2

The Reformers attempted to reclaim this understanding when they declared The Church to be the congregation of believers among whom the Gospel is rightly proclaimed and the sacraments are rightly administered in accordance with the Gospel (Aug. Conf. VII). Dr. Martin Luther, in fact, called The New Testament the book of the Holy Communion.

In The Didache, where we find the oldest surviving liturgy, we find a reflection of The New Testament emphasis upon the Oneness of The Church in The Offertory Prayer:
. . . as this piece [of bread] was scattered over the hills and then was brought together and made one, so let Your Church be brought together from the ends of the earth into Your Kingdom. For Yours is the glory and power through Jesus Christ forever.
The Church at worship is One Loaf; there is no stress or emphasis on individuals in the Eucharistic Community! The ecclesia is made up of many kernels, but when the members of The Body of Christ meet for worship, at least according to The New Testament and the witness of the Early Church, the individual becomes part of the whole. The ecclesia knows of no individualism. The newly baptized, including infants (according even to the witness of the Protestant Reformers), “continued steadfastly in the apostles’ doctrine and fellowship, and in the breaking of bread, and in prayer” (Acts 2:42). ALL the Faithful, regardless of age, continued steadfastly in participating in The Sacrament of Love (Holy Communion)!

When we come to fully understand the Biblical presupposition that true worship is the means by which the Holy Spirit bestows His gifts, then we will also understand that no organization, even if it is named Church, has the right to tell children that they must wait until they can eat and drink “worthily” by the standards which that organization has itself created.
Even though they [infants] do not hear the word through which faith comes in the same way that older people do, they still hear it as little children do. The older people grasp it with their ears and their reason but often without faith; children, however, hear it through their ears without reason and with faith. And the less reason one has, the closer faith is.
— Dr. Martin Luther (WA 17II, 87)

If the full Eucharistic Liturgy is denied a baptized Child of God, we are committing the mortal sin of “despising the little ones.”
Moreover, belief in the divine Scripture declares to us that among all, whether infants or those who are older, there is the same equality of the divine gift. . . . For as God does not accept the person, so does He not accept the age.
— St. Cyprian, Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. V, pp. 352-354

From the earliest days of The Church, Chrismation (Confirmation) was seen as an integral part of Holy Baptism wherein the individual is sealed with The Sign of The Holy Cross and confirmed in The Faith with the gifts of The Holy Spirit. This is the individual’s Pentecost. As The Holy Spirit descended visibly upon The Apostles in tongues of fire, so here He now descends invisibly with the same power and certainty.

In administering Holy Confirmation, The Church follows the example of The Apostles. For in the 8th Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles we read:
Now when the apostles at Jerusalem heard that the Samaritan people had accepted the word of God, they sent to them Simon Peter and John, Who, when they went down, prayed over them that they might receive the Holy Spirit. For as yet it had not come upon them although they had been baptized in the name of our Lord Jesus. Then they laid their hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit.
— Acts 8:14-17

The newly Baptized becomes an “anointed one” after the likeness of The Anointed One (Jesus The Christ). Both in Scripture and in the Early Church Chrismation is considered an integral part of Baptism; both were normally administered together (and often called Illumination) by The Bishop. Illumination is the only way for a person to be admitted to the inner core of The Faithful.

As Dr. Luther affirms in his Large Catechism (V,87), because children have been baptized and fully incorporated into The Church, they should also participate in the fellowship of Holy Communion.
Darum wisse ein jeglicher Hausvater, daß er aus Gottes Befehl and Gebot schuldig ist, seine Kinder solches zu lehren oder lernen (zu) lassen, was sie können sollen. Denn weil sie getauft sind and in die Christenheit genommen, sollen sie auch solcher Gemeinschaft des Sakraments geniessen . . .
After a stirring sermon, St. Peter was asked what to do in response to his word. He replied:
Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins [Baptism, using water, symbolizes the cleaning power of God in a person’s life!] and you shall receive the gift of The Holy Spirit [the individual is made a complete Christian by the Seal of The Holy Spirit — commonly called “confirmation” — bringing the power and strength of God The Holy Spirit into the newly forgiven person’s life].
— Acts 2:38

As the order of presbyters arose in The Church, they came to be the usual ministers of Baptism, while the Bishop continued to confirm — but both rites continued to be performed on the same occasion, and were immediately followed by the newly baptized receiving Holy Communion.

As The Church grew and dioceses expanded in size, it became impossible for the Bishop to be present at every Baptism. Since The Church has always considered Baptism to be normally necessary for salvation (Aug. Conf., Art. IX), it could not be delayed unnecessarily. Hence the problem: Should Baptism be delayed until the Bishop could come, or should Baptism and Confirmation be separated?

In The East, Baptism and Confirmation continued to be administered together, the Priest being authorized to confirm as the Bishop’s “deputy,” using oil (Chrism) consecrated by the Bishop for this purpose. Thus no delay was occasioned and Baptism and Confirmation were not separated.

The Church of Rome, however, elected not to delegate Confirmation to the Priest. Thus, having to wait for the periodic visit of the Bishop, Baptism was separated from Confirmation. Yet for centuries, in both East and West, Baptism and Confirmation continued to be administered at the earliest possible age. In both, Holy Communion was the normal and immediate concomitant of Illumination.

A proper understanding of The Holy Breaking of Bread and of The Church as a worshiping eucharistic fellowship, together with the testimony and witness of the ancient Church (Western as well as Eastern), decides in advance the so-called question of infant’s Communion. It is not optional! Children, by virtue of their incorporation into The Body of Christ Jesus our God and Savior, are entitled to Holy Communion!

As Eustratios Argenti, a great Orthodox writer of the 18th Century, wrote:
They [the Papists] have driven away from the Holy Table and from the Mystical Supper of The Lord those very children whom Christ took in His arms and blessed, and concerning whom He gave commandment that they should be suffered to come to Him; Yet the rebuke which shamed the Apostles has proved of no avail against the Papists. Christ’s injunction in the Gospel of John, ‘Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man . . . ‘ was not limited to any class or age, but applies to all alike. The Papists cannot deny that they once gave communion to small children as all the East has continued to do.
The arguments against permitting children to participate in Holy Communion apply equally to the Baptism of Infants; if admitted in one case, they must be admitted in the other! Dr. Martin Luther admits that:
. . . there is no passage in Scripture for it [infant Baptism]. . . . From Scripture we cannot clearly conclude that you could establish child baptism as a practice among the first Christians after the apostles.
— Dr. Martin Luther, Concerning Rebaptism (LW 40, 255-6)

Scripture is not the source of Infant Baptism! Yet both the baptism of infants and the communing of infants are doctrinally sound and Biblically correct. As the Early Church realized: There is no good reason to separate Baptism, Confirmation, and First Holy Communion. Faith is required of all three Rites; the Lutheran Reformers, who espoused and maintained Infant Baptism, insisted that infants had the necessary faith, as we have seen earlier. This faith, together with the word of Jesus, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you (John 6:53), should compel us to admit infants to Holy Communion!

Dr. Luther taught that even as the Sacrament of Holy Baptism is the means by which infants and older children are brought into The Body of Christ (The Church), even so it is the same Sacrament of Baptism by which The Holy Spirit prepares them for worthy reception of Our Lord’s Sacred Body & Most Precious Blood (Holy Communion). The Evangelical Catholic Church, therefore, believes, as all Christendom once did, that none of Christ’s little ones need to be deprived of the grace of The Holy Spirit in Holy Communion simply because they have not yet reached physical or mental maturity.
. . . When in I Cor. [11:28] Paul said that a man should examine himself, he spoke only of adults because he was speaking about those who were quarreling among themselves. However, he doesn’t here forbid that the sacrament of the altar be given even to children.
— Dr. Martin Luther, Table Talk #365; Luther’s Works, Vol. 54 [Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1967], p. 58

We believe, teach, and confess, with The Church Catholic, that:
. . . all the worthiness of the guests of this heavenly feast [Holy Communion] is and consists in the most holy obedience and perfect merit of Christ alone, which we appropriate to ourselves by true faith [freely given to even infants by The Holy Spirit in Baptism], and whereof we are assured by the Sacrament, and not at all in our virtues or inward and outward preparation.
— Formula of Concord, Epitome VII

The ability to discern The Lord’s Body and Blood in the Holy Sacrament does not come from human reason, age, experience, education, or knowledge, but is rather the work of The Holy Spirit Who, in our Baptism, worked faith in Jesus and spiritual recognition of Christ (having lifted the “veil” [II Cor. 3:14] from our minds and enlightened our understanding).
. . . we reject and condemn as false, erroneous, and misleading . . . the teaching that even true believers, who have and keep a right, true, living faith, and yet lack the said sufficient preparation of their own, could . . . receive this Sacrament to condemnation.
— Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration VII

Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints.

– Psalm 116:15
The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day . . .

– II Timothy 1:18
God forbid that in a higher state of existence she should cease to think of me, to long to comfort me, she who loved me more than words can tell.

– St. Augustine, of St. Monica his mother.
When Jesus was in the temple and was set upon by a group of scribes and Pharisees bent upon His entrapment, He told them that He knew that they were Abraham’s offspring; yet you seek to kill Me, because My word has no place in you. Jesus went on to startle them with the truth that Abraham lived, Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day; and he saw it, and was glad (John 8:37, 56). And on another occasion, when the Sadducees came to Him, who say that there is no resurrection, and attempted to entrap Him with a sly question about multiple marriages with the intent of demonstrating the absurdity of resurrected life, Jesus quickly dismissed their attempt, and then countered, And as for the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was said to you by God, “I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?” He is not God of the dead, but of the living (Matt. 22:22-33). Saint Paul, in quelling the disagreements between brothers that disturbs the unity of The Church, raised the entire question to Christ Himself, Who died and lived again, that He might be Lord both of the dead and of the living (Rom. 14:9).

That God is Lord both of the dead and of the living has always been the faith of The Catholic Church. With this faith, The Church expresses the all-encompassing Lordship of Christ Jesus over all the saints, and confesses this belief in the Apostles’ Creed, “I believe in the communion of saints.” In this faith, The Church teaches that She is comprised of all the believers, both those in The Church Militant on earth, and also those believers who have ended their battles and are now with the Lord in The Church Triumphant.

What is more, there has always been the belief that a certain degree of interaction ensues between the living and the dead in Christ. For, of course, the word communion in the phrase communion of saints means a “sharing together” or a “participation in.”

There is, then, a mystical union of believers that stretches across all space and all time. The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews indicates that we, while on earth, actually come together in some spiritual and mysterious way with the angels and saints in Heaven.

You have not come to a mountain that can be touched and this is burning with fire, to darkness, gloom and storm . . . You have come to Mount Zion, to the heavenly Jerusalem, the city of the living God. You have come to thousands upon thousands of angels in joyful assembly, to the church of the firstborn, whose names are written in heaven, you have come to God, the judge of all men, to the spirits of righteous men made perfect, to Jesus, the mediator of a new Covenant.

Heb. 12:18-24

A mutual sharing in praise and worship is one aspect of this mystical union of believers – a sharing together in the worship of the Lamb Who was slain. The Book of Revelation contains beautiful images of the worship that is in Heaven. The joyous multitude in Heaven rejoice exceedingly with the cry, hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns (Rev. 14:1-5; 15:1-4; 19:6-10). Our worship on earth is, indeed, in one respect a foretaste of the joys to come, but at the same time – through the mystical union of believers – we truly share now in that Heavenly praise and worship in this world.

The Church retains this joyous interaction of worship to God and the Lamb in its Holy Tradition of The Divine Liturgy. Through our mutual fellowship with Christ through the Spirit, which alone makes fellowship possible, we join together with believers from all ages and places as we proclaim in The Sanctus at the celebration of The Holy Eucharist:

. . . with angels and archangels and with all the company of Heaven we laud and magnify Thy glorious name evermore praising Thee and saying: Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth; Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory; Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna in the highest. Bless+ed is He, Bless+ed is He, Bless+ed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna in the highest.

Another aspect of the mystical union of believers is a mutual sharing in prayer. On the one hand we can speak of the prayer of the saints; on the other, the prayer for the saints. In the Book of Revelation we see the souls of the holy martyrs praying that the wrongs done on earth be righted, and by implication for their brethren on earth, How long, O Lord, holy and true, wilt Thou refrain from judging and avenging our blood on those who dwell on the earth (Rev. 6:10). The Lutheran Confessions attest to the prayers of angels and saints. In the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, we read:

. . . we also grant that the angels pray for us. For there is a testimony in Zech. 1,12, where an angel prays: “O Lord of hosts, how long wilt Thou not have mercy on Jerusalem?” . . . concerning the saints we concede that, just as when alive, they pray for the Church universal in general, so in Heaven they pray for the Church in general . . . Granting that the blessed Mary prays for the Church . . .

Apology of the Augsburg Confession, XXI, 8, 27

And Dr. Martin Luther in the Smalcald Articles says:

And although the angels in Heaven pray for us (as Christ Himself also does), as also do the saints on earth, and perhaps also in Heaven . . .

Smalcald Articles, Second Part, II, 26

The prayers of the saints and angels for us is a most comforting and encouraging doctrine. To believe, in all the travails in this life, that prayers of intercession are being prayed in Heaven for the benefit of the saints in the Church Militant, is to receive immense hope and strength. And this in no way detracts from The Intercession that is ours in Jesus and the Spirit (Heb. 7:25; Rom. 8:26); for no i9intercession avails without The Intercession and Mediation of Our Lord and God. And just as we do not despise the intercessions of the saints on earth, because there is One Who intercedes for us in Heaven, we do not despise the intercessions of the saints in Heaven, but, on the contrary, consider them a most blessed joy. To see this is to have the understanding of the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews, who moves from the intercessions of the saints to Jesus the Mediator and Intercessor in one vast paean of hope:

Therefore, since we have so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us, let us also lay aside every encumbrance, and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, fixing our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, Who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.

Heb. 12:1-2

There is a mutuality of prayer in the Communion of Saints. If, on the one hand, there are prayers in Heaven on our behalf, there are also prayers on earth for the dead in Christ. Concerning prayers for the saints, our Confessions acknowledge that the ancients spoke of prayer for the dead, and they do not forbid such a practice. The Lutheran Confessions (Apology XXIV, 94, 96) state the following: Epiphanius testifies that Aerius believed that prayers for the dead were useless [Epiphanius, Panarion, 75: 2,3,7]. This he rejects. We do not support Aerius either. [Emphasis added.]

The Lutheran Reformers, of course, knew that the Aerians were an ancient sect which denied that there was any advantage and benefit in praying for the dead. Saint Epiphanius, in his reply to this Sect, declared that the Orthodox had good reasons for mentioning the name of the departed, one being that such mention was an argument that the departed were still in existence and living in the Lord.

The Reformers could make such a strong statement with regard to prayers for the dead – so foreign to American Lutheranism today! – because they knew that prayers for the dead could be understood in all Scriptural and evangelical propriety, and they knew the pastoral benefits to be gained by the bereaved as they pray that their loved one may enjoy peace, refreshment, and rest in the everlasting grace of Christ.

Prayers for the dead are a testimony of the respect and love directed to the dead in Christ. They also attest to a belief in the communion of saints, and in the immortality of the soul, in that they who were deceased are yet alive, and not extinguished, but still living with the Lord. Finally, it points toward the consummation of all things, and places the preëminence upon the Day of Judgement (as the Scriptures do), without in any way denying the truth of the particular judgment.

As The Society of The Incarnate Word reminds us, we should remember when considering prayers for the dead that we do not pray in order to change God’s mind or to make Him remember something He has forgotten. Rather, we pray in order that we might remember that all things come from God, that He has in His keeping our departed loved ones.

We certainly do not pray the departed out of Purgatory, nor do we believe that our prayers change the state of the dead. Rather, our intercessions are a declaration of our faith that God is giving the faithful departed peace and rest, they are a form of thinking God for the examples He has given us in the lives and deeds of our fellow-members in the communion of saints, and they are a reminder that we are called to imitate the faith of the saints.

Most assuredly does The Evangelical Catholic Church condemn, with Dr. Luther and the Confessions, the belief that,

. . . we should invoke and adore the angels and saints, and fast, hold festivals, celebrate Mass in their honor, make offerings, and establish churches, altars, divine worship, and in still other ways serve them, and regard them as helpers in need and divide among them all kinds of help, and ascribe to each one a particular form of assistance, as the Papists teach and do. For this is idolatry.

(Smalcald Articles, Second Part, II, 12)

A true Evangelical Catholic confession asserts the centrality and all-encompassing nature of Christ’s merciful work of redemption. Therefore, while we believe in the prayers of the saints and prayers for the saints, we do not accede to prayers to the saints. We believe, then, in the mutual intercession of the saints, not in their invocation.

The Orthodox Catholic Church has never condemned prayers for the faithful departed. Perhaps the best way to explain how and why Catholics pray for their dead is to quote the parody of Dr. Luther’s Small Catechism, as written by The Society of The Incarnate Word:

God gives peace to the faithful departed indeed without our prayer, but we pray in this petition that He would lead us to know it and to acknowledge it with thanksgiving.

As a further understanding of the Communion of Saints, The Church has always given God-please honor to the saints, mindful of the words, Who can count the dust of Jacob . . . Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like his! (Num. 23:10), and . . . Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them (Rev. 14:13).

The Evangelical Catholic Church pays proper honor to Saint Mary, who has been raised to the pinnacle of womanhood by the grace of God operative in her. With The Council of Ephesus (A.D. 431), we confess Saint Mary as Theotokos – God-Bearer, a title affirmed in The Formula of Concord (VII, Ep. 12; Solid Declaration, 24). In this title, Theotokos (Mother of God), She confesses that a single, undivided person Who is God and man at one and the same time, was born of a sinful human being. We also consider Saint Mary Ever-Virgin, a title affirmed in The Smalcald Articles (Part One, IV [Latin]), and recognize her as that Most Praiseworthy Virgin (Augsburg Confession III, 1 [German]; Formula of Concord VIII; Solid Declaration 100 [Latin]). Ever mindful that, although Blessed Mary prays for The Church, she does not receive souls in death, overcome death, nor give life (Apology XXI, 27), The Evangelical Catholic Church, then, gives God-pleasing honor to The Blessed Virgin and to all the saints.

This honor is threefold. The first is thanksgiving: we should thank God for showing examples of His mercy, revealing His will to save men, and giving teachers and other gifts to The Church. Since these [saints] are His greatest gifts, we should extol them very highly; we should also praise the saints themselves for using these gifts, just as Christ praises faithful businessmen (Matt. 25:21,23).

The second honor is strengthening of our faith: when we see [Saint] Peter forgiven after his denial, we are encouraged to believe that grace does indeed abound more than sin (Rom. 5:20). The third honor is the imitation, first of their faith and then of their other virtues, which each should imitate in accordance with his calling.

— Apology to the Augsburg Confession, XXI, 4-7

We thus include in The Kalendar the following feasts of Our Lady:

February 2: The Purification
March 25: The Annunciation
July 2: The Visitation
August 15: The Dormition
September 8: The Nativity

Article I: Name
The name of the corporation is The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Article II: Confession

The Evangelical Catholic Church, and every member of The Evangelical Catholic Church, believes and accepts without reservation:

Section 1: The teachings of Our Lord Jesus Christ, His Apostles, and the first Öcumenical Councils of the undivided Church;

Section 2: The prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of The Old and of The New Testaments as the sole rule and standard according to which all dogma together with all teachers should be estimated and judged (F.C., Ep. 1, Trig. pg. 777) ;

Section 3: The three Catholic and Öcumenical Creeds as the unanimous, universal Christian Faith and confession of the Orthodox and True Church, namely, The Apostles’ Creed, The Nicene Creed, and The Athanasian Creed (F.C., Ep. 2, Trig. pg. 777);

Section 4: The Symbolical Writings of The Evangelical Catholic Church as a true and unadulterated statement and exposition of The Word of God, namely, The Unaltered Augsburg Confession, The Apology of The Augsburg Confession, The Smalcald Articles, The Small and Large Catechisms of Dr. Martin Luther, and The Formula of Concord.

Article III: Purposes

The purposes for which The Evangelical Catholic Church is organized are:

Section 1: To unite in a corporate body all Evangelical Catholics;

Section 2: To proclaim and propagate the Evangelical Catholic Faith, especially through The Means of Grace;

Section 3: To assist, guide, direct, and promote the spiritual growth and development of all members;

Section 4: To promote the systematic study of The Holy Bible and constant growth in Christian knowledge and grace through the establishment, construction, and maintenance of theological seminaries, universities, colleges, academies, schools, publishing houses, radio and television broadcasting systems, congregations, preaching stations, religious orders, convents, hospitals, monasteries, confraternities, and sodalities;

Section 5: To unite those Evangelical Catholics who seek a return to Catholic piety and practice by especially fostering the proper honor and adoration due to The Person of Our Lord Jesus Christ in The Holy Sacrament of His Sacred Body and Most Precious Blood in an accessorial confraternity of such name and purpose;

Section 6: To assist Holy Mother Church in training Her members to grow in their understanding and appreciation of the principles, attitudes, traditions and doctrine of our Holy Religion;

Section 7: To foster mutual, supportive intercession (especially at The Holy Eucharist) for all members (living and dead);

Section 8: To promote, by all legitimate means, the celebration of The Holy Eucharist as The Chief Act of Divine Worship every Sunday and Holy Day; and the observance of The Catholic and primitive rule of receiving Holy Communion fasting;

Section 9: To foster the use of The Sacrament of Repentance (private confession), especially in preparation for receiving Holy Communion;

Section 10: To do charitable work within the meaning of Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code as now enacted or as may hereafter be amended;

Section 11: To print, publish, purchase, sell, and otherwise disseminate Bibles, books, periodicals, literature, music, and other supplies for The Church and Her institutions and members;

Section 12: To establish and conduct all such enterprises and endeavors and to exercise such further powers as may be necessary or expedient to carry out the objects and purposes for which the corporation is organized.

Article IV: Membership

Section 1: Membership in The Evangelical Catholic Church is held and may be acquired by parishes, accessorial societies (e.g., religious communities, confraternities, sodalities, and educational institutions), and those in Holy Orders who believe, teach, confess and accept the teachings of this Church and the confession of Article II of these By-Laws.

Section 2:

Part a: Parishes seeking membership in this Church, as well as already established accessorial societies, shall submit their request for membership to The Primate. The Primate shall cause to be published throughout The Church such request for membership. After ninety (90) days, no lawful objection having been registered by any members of The Church, The Primate shall admit said petitioner into full membership in The Evangelical Catholic Church, Provided, said petitioner brings their Articles of Incorporation, By-Laws, Rules, and Canons into conformity with the same of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Part b: When a lawful objection has been registered by a member of The Church to the admittance into membership of the petitioner, The Church’s Board of Directors shall present their recommendation to The Primate within thirty (30) days for final disposition.

Section 3: Ordained clergy coming from other ecclesiastical jurisdictions wishing to affiliate with The Evangelical Catholic Church must submit to a colloquium before being received.

Section 4: Those members of the laity wishing to associate with The Evangelical Catholic Church are received into fellowship by the parish Pastors of The Church through:

Part a: Baptism in The Name of The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit (if not already validly baptized);

Part b: Chrismation (if not already validly confirmed), after regular attendance at a catechetical instruction class in which the doctrine of our Holy Religion is studied and discussed;

Part c: Transfer from another Catholic parish upon receipt of a letter of transfer from the former parish attesting that the prospective member is in a state of saving grace;

Part d: Renewal of Faith — lapsed Catholics may be admitted upon showing evidence of a renewal of faith meeting with the Pastor’s acceptance.

Section 5: Every member of The Church shall, in accordance with his vocation, his ability, and the means at his command, diligently and earnestly promote the purposes of The Church by word, deed, and adequate financial support.

Article V: Administrative Power
Section 1: The Evangelical Catholic Church is an ecclesiastical government exercising legislative and judicial powers to govern Her members.

Section 2: The Bishops and The Clergy have the power of the Order and power of Jurisdiction, for they are the spiritual fathers who govern and guide their parish, diocese, order, and Church by The Word of God (Apol. XXVIII,13, Trig. pg. 477; cf. Mt 18:18, Mt 28:18-20, Lk 10:16).

Section 3: One and only one Bishop, The Superior-General, heads and manages all the business and affairs of The Evangelical Catholic Church; he shall be The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Article VI: Legislative Power
Section 1: The legislative powers of The Evangelical Catholic Church are reserved to, in the order of precedence:
a. The General Synod;
b. Special Synods;
c. Diocesan (or Archdiocesan) Synods;
d. Special Diocesan (or Archdiocesan) Synods;
e. Parish meetings.
Section 2: All matters resolved or adopted by The General Synod or Special Synods must receive The Primate’s approval before they can be implemented or take effect.

Article VII: The Primate

Section 1: The Primate has the supervision regarding the doctrine, faith, morals, discipline and administration of:
Part a: All officers of The Church;

Part b: All such as are employed by The Church;

Part c: Each individual Diocese/Archdiocese of The Church;

Part d: All Bishops of The Church;

Part e: All parishes, seminaries, monasteries, convents, religious communities and orders, universities, colleges, academies, schools, confraternities, sodalities and other accessorial organizations of The Church;

Part f: All clergy and religious of The Church.

Section 2: The Primate has the authority and duty to see to it that all the aforementioned act in accordance with The Church’s Articles of Incorporation, Faith, Canons, and these By-Laws; to admonish all who in any way depart from them, and, if such admonition is not heeded, to discipline such as depart therefrom.

Section 3: The Primate shall sign all official papers and documents in the name of The Church.

Section 4: The Primate shall represent The Church in official contacts with other churches, synods, communions, denominations and ecclesiastical jurisdictions.

Section 5: The Primate shall represent The Church in official contacts with all sister churches by aiding, counseling, and advising them and strengthening the relations with and between them.

Section 6: The Primate shall have the right to authorize any Bishop of The Church to perform the duties of The Primate’s office, and shall hold him responsible for the performance of such duties.

Section 7: The Primate shall consecrate all Bishops for The Evangelical Catholic Church, or name Consecrators (who must have valid Apostolic Orders).

Section 8: The Primate shall preside at all General and Special Synods, taking care that all things are done in a Christian manner and in accordance with The Articles of Incorporation, Canons, Faith, and By-Laws of The Church.

Section 9: The Primate is the superior of all Bishops and Clergy and the official head of all seminaries, universities, colleges, monasteries, convents, and religious communities.

Section 10: The Primate hears and decides all appeals regarding administrative and disciplinary matters.

Section 11: The Primate shall be the Comptroller of The Church, counter-signing all cheques.

Section 12: The Primate is to receive annual written reports from all Bishops regarding their Dioceses.

Section 13: The Primate is to confirm or reject as unsuitable those elected by their Diocese to The Office of Bishop; no one may serve as or be consecrated a Bishop in The Church without The Primate’s prior written confirmation and approval.

Section 14: The Primate is to render a written report on the state of The Church, at least once every year, to all Dioceses and Bishops.

Section 15: The Primate approves all salaries paid to all officers of The Church and all such as are employed by The Church.

Section 16: The Primate shall serve as a member of and Chairman of The Board of Directors.

Section 17: The Primate’s See shall be The Diocese of Phoenix & The Southwest, or wherever The Primate may elect.

Section 18: The Primate shall serve as Superior-General of The Evangelical Catholic Church from the time of his election until his death, resignation from office, or retirement; a successor must be elected by The General Synod from a list of candidates nominated by The Board of Directors within six (6) months after a vacancy occurs.

Article VIII: The General Synod

Section 1: The General Synod shall be The Church’s chief legislative assembly. It shall meet at such times as The Primate may direct.

Section 2: Voting delegates shall consist of all accredited clergy (deacons, priests, Bishops) and at least one lay delegate from each member parish.

Section 3: All accessorial societies, sodalities, confraternities, religious orders and religious communities are entitled to send at least one voting delegate to The General Synod.

Section 4: The number of delegates which each member parish and accessorial organization shall be entitled to send to The General Synod shall be determined by guide-lines adopted by The Board of Directors and approved by The Primate.

Section 5: The General Synod of The Evangelical Catholic Church is not recognized as having doctrinal authority. The Doctrine and dogmas of our Holy Religion represent the teachings of The Holy Scripture, our Lord and His Apostles, and the consensus of the entire Church Catholic, as is correctly expounded by The Catholic Book of Concord of 1580. This Church and Her General Synods may not, by themselves, therefore, presume to change the recognized Faith of the whole.

Section 6: The General Synod shall:
Part a: Interpret and define Church laws, canons, and Truths;

Part b: Remove Bishops when necessary, with The Primate’s approval;

Part c: Elect The Primate (The Superior-General) from a list of candidates nominated by The Board of Directors;

Part d: Elect members to The Board of Directors from a list of candidates nominated by The Primate;

Part e: Organize and implement programs which will further the purposes and objectives of The Church;

Part f: Listen to the needs and desires of all members, and respond when possible;

Part g: Promote an awareness and appreciation of the historic continuity of The Church, as well as of the affairs and workings of all the denominations, communions, ecclesiastical jurisdictions and sects within The Body of Christ, and to work for their eventual reunion.

Section 7: All the decisions and resolutions of The General Synod or a Special Synod approved by The Primate are binding upon all the members of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Section 8: All matters resolved or adopted by The General Synod or a Special Synod must receive The Primate’s approval before implementation; it is The Primate, and only The Primate, who can make a law binding upon the entire Church and Clergy.
Article IX: Diocesan/Archdiocesan Synods

Section 1: The Diocesan/Archdiocesan Synod shall meet every year, or more frequently if The Ordinary of The Diocese so directs.

Section 2: The Bishop of The Diocese shall preside at all Diocesan Synods, taking care that all things be done in a Christian manner and in accordance with The Articles of Incorporation, Canons, Faith, By-Laws and decisions of The General Synod of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Section 3: Voting delegates shall consist of all accredited clergy of The Evangelical Catholic Church registered in The Diocese and delegates from all member parishes and accessorial organizations within The Diocese as determined by guide-lines established by The Board of Directors of The Evangelical Catholic Church with the Primate’s prior approval.

Section 4: The Diocesan Synod shall:
Part a: Elect priests to the Office of Bishop for The Diocese, submitting such election to The Primate and The Board of Directors of The Evangelical Catholic Church for confirmation or rejection;

Part b: Adopt and implement programs to promote and fulfill the purposes of The Church within The Diocese;

Part c: Adopt by-laws, resolutions, canons and regulations necessary or proper for its administration or for effectively carrying on the work of The Church within The Diocese. Such by-laws, resolutions, canons and regulations shall not conflict with The Articles of Incorporation, Canons, Faith, By-Laws, or decisions of The Evangelical Catholic Church, and must be submitted to The Evangelical Catholic Church’s Board of Directors for approval before they can be implemented.

Section 5: All property and assets to which a Diocese holds title or over which it has control is held in trust by The Diocese for The Evangelical Catholic Church and shall be transferred forthwith to The Evangelical Catholic Church at the request of The Primate or The Church’s Board of Directors.

Section 6: All matters resolved or adopted by The Diocesan Synod must receive The Ordinary’s approval in order to be ratified and eligible for implementation; The Primate is empowered to nullify all actions and resolutions of The Diocesan Synod, even those receiving The Ordinary’s approval.

Article X: Board of Directors

Section 1: The Board of Directors shall consist of: The Superior-General (The Primate), The Treasurer-General, and The Secretary-General of The Evangelical Catholic Church by virtue of their offices. The Bishop of each Diocese within The Church shall be a member of The Board of Directors; the Superior, whatever his title, of each recognized accessorial organization of The Church shall be a member of The Board of Directors.

Section 2: The Board of Directors shall number no less than three (3) but no more than fifteen (15) voting members. Should the number of Dioceses within The Church cause the membership of The Board of Directors to exceed twelve (12) members, excluding the officers (Primate, Treasurer-General and Secretary-General):
Part a: Each Superior of a recognized accessorial organization shall be classified as an Advisory Member of The Board of Directors and shall not be eligible to vote;

Part b: The Diocesan Bishops of The Church, excluding the officers (Primate, Treasurer-General and Secretary-General), shall elect twelve of their number at each meeting of The General Synod to serve as voting members of The Board of Directors until the next meeting of The General Synod; each Bishop not elected to voting membership on The Board of Directors shall be classified as an Advisory Member of The Board and shall not be entitled to vote.

Part c: Each Bishop who is not the Ordinary of a Diocese, excluding the officers, shall be classified as an Advisory Member of The Board and shall not be eligible to vote;

Section 3: The Board of Directors, acting only with the recommendation and approval of The Primate, decides when and whether a Diocese shall be formed, divided, reäligned, dissolved, or merged with another or other Dioceses; determines the boundaries of a Diocese and approves the name of a Diocese.

Section 4: The Board of Directors may suggest to The Primate the creation of inferior boards, committees, departments, commissions and tribunals, together with a tentative definition of their duties and membership.

Section 5: The Board of Directors shall:
Part a: Approve or reject, upon the recommendation of The Primate, the by-laws, canons, resolutions and regulations for the organization and management of every Diocese before final adoption or implementation by The Diocese and presentation to the proper civil authorities, should this be necessary. All subsequent changes to the by-laws, canons, resolutions and regulations governing a Diocese must also be submitted to The Primate for the Board’s review and approval or rejection before implementation.

Part b: Present a list of candidates to The General Synod for The Office of Primate (Superior-General) when that office is vacant because of death, retirement, or resignation. This list of candidates shall be gathered in any manner deemed appropriate by The Board. Only The Board has the right to nominate candidates to The Office of Primate.

Part c: Meet as it agrees or at The Primate’s call.

Part d: A majority of The Board’s voting members shall constitute a quorum.

Part e: Require and receive Quarterly and Annual financial reports and statements from The Treasurer-General; arrange for the publication and distribution of financial reports according to guide-lines established by The Primate.

Part f: See to it that independent audits are made of all financial activities of boards, commissions, committees and accessorial societies, sodalities, confraternities, religious orders and communities, and all the dioceses of The Church.

Part g: Advise The Primate in recognizing or chartering accessorial organizations and in accepting parishes and clergy into membership when a lawful objection has been registered to such admittance.

Part h: Confirm or reject the election of a candidate to the Office of Bishop within The Evangelical Catholic Church by The Diocese in which he is to serve.
Part i: The death, resignation or retirement of The Primate also constitutes the Call for a General Synod; the Board of Directors shall elect from their membership a Presiding Bishop to act as Primate in the interim between The Primate’s death, resignation or retirement and The General Synod’s election of a new Primate. The Presiding Bishop is not eligible for nomination to the Office of Primate.

Article XI: Secretary-General

Section 1: The Secretary-General shall be elected by The General Synod from the slate of candidates nominated by The Primate. Only The Primate has the right to nominate candidates for The Office of Secretary-General.

Section 2: The Secretary-General shall serve in office from the time of election until: (1) death; (2) resignation from office; (3) retirement; or, (4) removal from office by The Primate.

Section 3: In the event of death, resignation, removal from office by The Primate, or permanent incapacity of The Secretary-General, The Board of Directors shall elect an Acting Secretary-General from nominations made by The Primate; the Acting Secretary-General will serve until the next regularly called General Synod elects a new Secretary-General.

Section 4: The Secretary-General shall:
Part a: Perform all customary duties as corporation secretary and as such, with The Primate, sign all duly authorized documents of The Church.

Part b: Serve as a voting member and secretary of The Board of Directors.

Part c: Record the proceedings during The General Synod.

Part d: Announce daily the time and place of committee meetings at The General Synod.

Part e: Officially notify every member of The Church elected to office by The General Synod of his election.

Part f: Receive and present all applications for parish and clergy membership in The Evangelical Catholic Church to The Primate and, if necessary because of a lawful objection, to The Board of Directors.

Part g: Keep an accurate, up-to-date file on all members, or cause such file to be kept and maintained.

Part h: Perform such other work as The General Synod or The Primate may assign.

Article XII: Treasurer-General

Section 1: The Treasurer-General shall be elected by The General Synod from the slate of candidates nominated by The Primate. Only The Primate has the right to nominate candidates for The Office of Treasurer-General.

Section 2: The Treasurer-General shall serve in office from the time of election until: (1) death; (2) resignation from office; (3) retirement; or, (4) removal from office by The Primate.

Section 3: In the event of death, resignation, removal from office by The Primate, or permanent incapacity of The Treasurer-General, The Board of Directors shall elect an Acting Treasurer-General from nominations made by The Primate; the Acting Treasurer-General will serve until the next regularly called General Synod elects a new Treasurer-General.

Section 4: The Treasurer-General shall:
Part a: Receive all contributions.

Part b: Keep an accurate record of all receipts and disbursements.

Part c: Serve as a voting member of The Board of Directors.

Part d: Pay all bills approved by The Primate.

Part e: Submit all cheques to The Primate for counter-signature.

Part f: Submit an accurate financial accounting quarterly and annually to The Board of Directors.
Part g: Keep on file a correct list of all devises and bequests which directly or indirectly have been given to The Evangelical Catholic Church. In such list there shall be recorded the name of the testator, the amount of money or the real estate (including legal description) or legal papers devised or bequeathed, the stipulations of the will (if such have been made by the testator), and the name of the executor or executors.

Part h: Receive and publish monthly reports of receipts and reports from Diocesan treasurers.

Article XIII: The Pastor/The Parish
Section 1: The Pastor of every parish in The Evangelical Catholic Church, appointed by The Ordinary from a list of nominees submitted to him by the parish, is the official voice of the people under his cure; he has the power of the Order and of Jurisdiction in his parish, for he is the spiritual father of his parish.

Section 2: The Pastor is responsible for the spiritual, physical, financial, and administrative welfare of his parish; he establishes the character of life and goals of his parish; he may organize his parish in any manner he deems appropriate, with the permission of his Ordinary.

Section 3: The Pastor of each parish in The Evangelical Catholic Church shall:
Part a: Keep accurate records of all baptisms, marriages, communions, confirmations, funerals, etc.

Part b: Submit annual reports to The Ordinary (or more frequently if the Ordinary so directs) of:
(1) All Eucharistic celebrations at which he presided or assisted, giving date, place, attendance, collection, etc .
(2) Communions taken to the sick, infirm, shut-in, elderly.
(3) All baptisms, giving pertinent data (e.g., name of baptized, date and place of birth, full legal name of both parents, sponsors’ names).
(4) All marriages, giving pertinent data and submitting a copy of the marriage certificate.
(5) All sacraments administered, giving all pertinent data.
(6) All income received, excluding honoraria.
(7) All disbursements on behalf of the parish.

Part c: Preside at all parish meetings.

Part d: Be responsible for hiring and firing all parish help (office workers, janitors, teachers, parish workers, directors of Christian education, etc.).

Part e: Receive all new members and transfer members in a state of saving grace who have moved outside his parish’s boundaries.

Part f: Celebrate only The Liturgy approved by The Primate.

Part g: Permit only canonically ordained clergy to share his Altar and Pulpit, and then only clergy of denominations or jurisdictions with The Evangelical Catholic Church is in full fellowship.

Part h: Receive the approval of The Primate to carry on any öcumenical services or relations.

Part i: Authorize his associate or assistant Pastor(s) to function as The Pastor of the parish whenever he deems it necessary; he may authorize his associate or assistant to represent either him or the parish at Diocesan Synods and meetings.
Article XIV: Holy Orders
Section 1: D e a c o n s
Part a: No one shall be ordained to the Deaconate without having first completed at least two years of formal seminary training (or its equivalent, as determined by The Primate) and having reached the age of twenty-one (21) years. The Primate may, for good reason, make exceptions.

Part b: Deacons shall not preside at The Holy Eucharist, hear confessions, bestow blessings, or grant Absolution.

Part c: Deacons shall assist the priests and Bishops in their ministry, especially during the celebration of The Holy Eucharist in the reading of The Holy Gospel and leading The Intercessions, and in the supervision and conduct of The Church’s benevolent and charitable work.

Part d: All candidates for ordination to the Deaconate must, before ordination, make an unqualified subscription to the Confession of The Church (Article II).

Part e: Deacons may be married or single; members of monastic communities may not marry. Once ordained, an unmarried Deacon may not ordinarily marry; exceptions may be granted by The Primate for just cause.
Section 2: P r i e s t s
Part a: Ordinarily no one shall be ordained a priest who has not already been ordained a Deacon and served as a Deacon for at least one full year; Priests shall not be younger than twenty-four (24) years of age.

Part b: All candidates for ordination to The Holy Priesthood must freely give their unqualified subscription to the Confession of The Church (Article II).

Part c: No one shall be ordained to the priesthood without having first earned a Baccalaureate degree and subsequently graduated from an academically accredited seminary (or its equivalent, as determined by The Primate).

Part d: Priests may be married or single. Once an unmarried man is ordained to the Deaconate, however, he may not ordinarily marry. Exceptions may be granted by The Primate with just cause.

Part e: Monastic Priests may not marry or be married, either before or after their ordination.

Part f: Priests must be diligent in their prayer life and administration of The Holy Sacraments.

Section 3: B i s h o p s
Part a: Only single Priests or monastic clergy who are members in good standing of The Evangelical Catholic Church can be elected to the Office of Bishop; there can be no exception to this law without the consent of the whole Church Catholic.

Part b: The Bishop who would fulfill his Office must see to it that our Holy Faith is fully presented and truly received, the Holy Sacraments made available and freely supplied, and that The Sacred Ministry is rigorously maintained, defended, and extended within his Diocese or Jurisdiction.

Part c: The Bishop is the center of unity in The Church; he symbolizes and signifies the true nature of The Church as The Mystical Body of Christ Jesus, one in Her being, one in Her function, and one in Her objectives.

Part d: The Bishop has the supervision regarding the doctrine, faith, morals, discipline and administration of all members of The Church within his Diocese or Jurisdiction.

Part e: The Bishop shall submit annual written reports on the affairs and condition of his Diocese or Jurisdiction to The Primate and cause the Diocesan or Jurisdictional Treasurer, or his equivalent, to submit annual written reports of all financial transactions to The Treasurer-General of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Part f: The Bishop shall assume the duties, responsibilities and prerogatives of his office only after having been nominated and elected to Office by his Diocesan or Jurisdictional Synod and receiving the confirmation of The Primate and The Church’s Board of Directors. He may serve, with The Primate’s prior approval, as Diocesan or Jurisdictional Vicar (Acting Bishop) should there be an unduly long interval of time between his election and (1) the next regular meeting of The Church’s Board of Directors or (2) arrangements can be made for his valid Consecration in Apostolic Succession. A Vicar may not preside or assist at any ordinations or confirmations until he be fully confirmed in his new Office by The Church’s Board of Directors and The Primate and receive Consecration at the hands of at least two (but preferably three) Bishops with valid Orders.

Part g: The Bishop shall serve from the time of his confirmation by The Primate and The Church’s Board of Directors and his Consecration until his death, resignation, retirement, or removal from Office by The Primate or The General Synod. In the event of a vacancy in the Office of Bishop, a successor must be nominated and elected by The Diocesan or Jurisdictional Synod within six months after the vacancy first occurs.

Article XV: Canons

Section 1: To carry out and implement the purposes and mission of The Church, to establish principles and rules for Christian ministry, and to facilitate a God-pleasing administration of The Church and all Her members, The Primate and The Board of Directors shall be responsible for promulgating The Canons of The Church.

Section 2: The Canons of The Church may be amended by The Board of Directors upon petition of The General Synod, but only with The Primate’s approval.

Section 3: All the Canons adopted by The Board of Directors must be approved by The Primate prior to implementation. Canons become binding upon The Church and clergy only after having received The Primate’s written approval.
Article XVI: Amendments

Section 1: The General Synod may, at any regular session, formulate and adopt proposed amendments to these By-Laws or to The Articles of Incorporation, which must then be presented to The Primate for approval or rejection.

Section 2: Proposed amendments to these By-Laws or to The Articles of Incorporation, presented by a regular session of The General Synod to The Primate and receiving The Primate’s approval, shall then be presented by The Primate to the next regular meeting of The General Synod for final adoption.

Section 3: There must elapse at least twelve (12) months between the meeting of The General Synod which proposes an amendment to these By-Laws or to The Articles of Incorporation and the meeting of The General Synod to which The Primate presents the proposed amendment for final adoption.

4.3-1 Ordained clergy coming from other ecclesiastical jurisdictions wishing to affiliate with The Evangelical Catholic Church (ECC) must submit to a colloquium before being received.

1.01 Applications for admission to the colloquy program shall be directed by The Bishop of the Diocese where the application originates to The Primate.

1.02 The Diocesan Bishop shall transmit all applications for clergy membership in The ECC to The Primate (or to the individual or committee appointed for this purpose by The Primate). The application shall be accompanied by:
a. An autobiographical statement by the applicant, clearly and fully setting forth his background and his reasons for wishing to qualify for the pastoral ministry within The ECC.
b. Official transcripts of the applicant’s secondary, collegiate, and seminary training, as well as a full description of all non-credit academic work done by the applicant.
c. Testimonials from no fewer than three competent references who have known the applicant and worked with him for at least two recent years as to his Christian character and life, ability, personality, and previous service.
d. At least three testimonials witnessing to the applicant’s past service in the jurisdiction where he previously served in the pastoral ministry, together with evidence of good standing in the ecclesiastical jurisdiction from which he has severed connection or is in the process of severing connection.

1.03 The Diocesan Bishop shall assure The Primate, or his authorized delegate, of his sponsorship of the applicant before favorable action on the application can be taken.

1.04 Only such applicants shall be considered eligible for admission to the colloquy program as are:
a. Clergy with valid Orders who are in good standing in other Catholic jurisdictions and are graduates of established theological seminaries.
b. Clergy who are in good standing in a Lutheran jurisdiction and are graduates of established theological seminaries.
c. Members in good standing of a parish which is a member of The ECC who are graduates of an established theological seminary.
d. Members in good standing of a parish which is a member of The ECC who are over the age of 40 years, are college graduates, and have had considerable experience in Church work.

1.05.a After the Diocesan Bishop has furnished The Primate, or his authorized delegate, with the required documents and The Primate has assured himself that the applicant qualifies for the colloquy program, The Primate shall cause to be published throughout The Church the request of the applicant for admission to the pastoral ministry within The ECC. If no valid objection is filed within ninety (90) days after the notice of application has been published, The Primate shall cause the colloquy program to proceed.

1.05.b When a lawful objection has been registered by a member of The ECC to the admittance into the pastoral ministry of the applicant, the application shall be submitted to The Church’s Board of Directors, which shall present its recommendation to The Primate within thirty (30) days for final disposition.

1.06 The Primate, or his authorized delegate, in consultation with the Diocesan Bishop recommending the applicant for the pastoral ministry, shall determine the course of study and length of internship for each applicant on the basis of the applicant’s needs and ecclesiastical background. In general, the course of study should include courses in the major areas of theology and the internship should be for not less than six months under the immediate supervision of one of the Bishops of The Church.

1.07 Before admittance to the pastoral ministry in The ECC, the applicant shall submit satisfactory theological papers and sermons and pass comprehensive written and oral examinations in the major areas of theology under the direction of The Primate, or his authorized delegate.

1.08 All candidates for the pastoral ministry of The ECC shall give evidence that they fully understand and accept the doctrinal standards of The Church, are acquainted with Her practice, and have the ability and intention to teach, preach, and practice in conformity with these standards.

1.09 Applicants who have satisfactorily passed their written and oral examinations and completed their mandatory period of internship shall be given a certificate of eligibility by The Primate for admittance into the pastoral ministry and commended to the sponsoring Bishop for ordination (should this be necessary) and installation.
1.10 Applications from clergy or candidates for Holy Orders who are members of an ecclesiastical jurisdiction with whom The ECC is in full communion and who have previously given satisfactory evidence of their qualifications for the pastoral ministry may be received without examination of the applicant, provided that The Church’s high professional standards for the ministry are maintained.

Articles of Incorporation
Article I:
The name of this Non-Profit organization, by permission of the Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, shall be: (Name of Parish or Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church.

Article II:

This Non-Profit corporation is organized exclusively:

A. For religious, charitable, and educational purposes and as a tax exempt organization under Section 501(a) and Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (or the corresponding provisions of any future federal tax law), including the making of distributions to organizations that qualify as exempt organizations under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code;

B. To hold property in common for such exclusive purpose, acquiring, holding and utilizing such property and other assets as a subordinate membership unit of and in trust for the central organization, The Evangelical Catholic Church (an Arizona Non-Profit Corporation), which central organization shall have the power and authority of general oversight, supervision and ownership over the property, funds and assets of this organization.

C. To constitute a lawful congregation of believers adhering to the Symbolical Writings of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church as received and defined by The Evangelical Catholic Church, and to engage in worship services and other activities toward the greater glory and honor of God in Holy Trinity within the liturgical and sacramental discipline of worship and service and in such text and form as approved by the Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

D. To serve as a subordinate membership unit of The Evangelical Catholic Church in training the members affiliated with this corporation to grow in their understanding and appreciation of the principles, attitudes, traditions and doctrine of our Holy Religion by especially promoting the systematic study of The Holy Bible and the Lutheran Confessions and a continual growth in Christian knowledge and grace through the establishment, construction, and maintenance of confraternities, soldalities, worship facilities, schools, publishing houses, multi-media centers, libraries, and radio and television broadcasting systems.

E. To proclaim and propagate the Evangelical Catholic Faith, especially through the Means of Grace, and to assist, guide, direct, and promote the spiritual growth and development of all members of the corporation;

F. To print, publish, purchase, sell, and otherwise disseminate Bibles, books, periodicals, literature, music, and other supplies for The Church and Her institutions and members.

G. To establish and conduct all such enterprises and endeavors and to exercise such further powers as may be necessary or expedient to carry out the lawful objects and purposes for which the corporation is organized.

Article III:

A. The corporation shall have two classes of members:
1. Board of Trustee members, which shall be voting members;

2. Congregational members.

B. Congregational Members
1. Congregational Membership in this organization is open to any person, male or female, without regard to race or national origin, economic status, age or other personal or economic attributes or status, who has received a valid baptism and chrismation and adheres to the Articles of Incorporation, By-Laws, Canons and Confession of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

2. Individuals wishing to affiliate with this corporation as congregational members are received into fellowship by the Parish Pastor through:
a. Baptism by water in The Name of The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit (if not already validly baptized);
b. Chrismation (if not already validly confirmed);

c. Transfer from another Catholic parish upon receipt of a letter of transfer from the former parish attesting that the prospective member is in a state of saving grace;

d. Renewal of Faith. Lapsed Catholics may be admitted upon showing evidence of a renewal of faith meeting with the Pastor’s acceptance.

3. No congregational member shall by virtue of such membership acquire any right, title, or interest in or to any property belonging to or used by this congregation.

4. Congregational membership may be terminated by the Pastor at his discretion, for cause, and appeal in such cases shall lie to the Ordinary or to the Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church whose decision shall be final.

5. The Ordinary or Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church may assign individuals to this corporation as congregational members since all lay members of The Evangelical Catholic Church must hold local congregational membership.

C. Board of Trustee Members
1. The business and affairs of this corporation shall be conducted by a Board of Trustees.

2. The Board of Trustees shall be the only voting members of the corporation.

3. The Board of Trustee members of this corporation shall be:
a. The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, an Arizona Non-Profit Corporation, ex officio;
b. The Pastor of the congregation when the congregation has a Pastor, otherwise a Cleric of rank, named and appointed by the Ordinary;
c. The Ordinary of the diocese in which this congregation is situated (should the congregation be placed into a diocese other than that headed by the Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church), as Chief Executive Officer;
d. Such other person or persons, clerical or lay, as shall be named and appointed by the Ordinary.

4. The Board of Trustees shall number no less than the minimum required by the laws of the State in which this congregation is domiciled.
Article IV:

A. This corporation and ecclesiastical organization is to exist perpetually, and within the subordinate membership and under the general oversight and ownership of The Evangelical Catholic Church, a Non-Profit Corporation registered in the State of Arizona, and none of the funds, property, assets or population of this organization may be alienated therefrom without the prior written permission of The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

B. No part of the net earnings of this corporation shall inure to the benefit of, or be distributable to, its members, trustees, officers, or other private persons, except that this corporation shall be authorized and empowered to pay reasonable compensation for services rendered and to make payment and distributions in furtherance of the purposes set forth in Article II above. No substantial part of the activities of this corporation shall be the carrying on of propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation, and the corporation shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distribution of statements) any political campaign on behalf of any candidate for public office.
1. The funds, property and assets acquired by this corporation may be used toward the purposes stated herein and within context of the Canons of The Evangelical Catholic Church, Her Articles, By-Laws and administrative, legislative and ecclesiastical Norms, to which this present organization owes its existence, and on the understanding that this corporation is regarded as holding such funds, assets and property in trust for the central organization, The Evangelical Catholic Church, which funds, assets and property shall never be alienated without the prior written consent of The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

2. Should this corporation dissolve, the Board of Trustees, after paying or making provision for the payment of all of the liabilities of the corporation, shall secure and convey title and control of all remaining assets to The Evangelical Catholic Church, an Arizona Non-Profit corporation. In no event shall the assets be distributed to any member, trustee or officer of the corporation or any private individual.

3. The Pastor of this congregation, appointed by the Ordinary from a list of nominees submitted to him by the members of the congregation, is responsible for the spiritual, physical, financial, and administrative welfare of this congregation. He acts under the direct supervision and guidance of the Bishop to whom he is incardinated.

C. Notwithstanding any other provision of these articles, the corporation shall not carry on any other activities not permitted to be carried on by (a) a corporation exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any corresponding provision of any future federal revenue law or (b) a corporation, contributions to which are deductible under Section 170(c)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or the corresponding provision of any future federal revenue law.

D. The private property of the incorporators, members, trustees and officers of the corporation shall be forever exempt from and not liable for, the debts and obligations of the corporation of any kind whatsoever. The corporation shall indemnify each person who is or was an incorporator, member, trustee or officer of the corporation against all expenses incurred by them, and each of them, including but not limited to legal fees, judgments and penalties which may be incurred, rendered or levied in any legal action brought against any of them for or on account of any action or omission alleged to have been committed while acting within the scope of employment of the corporation.

E. In all instances the Board of Trustees of this corporation shall strive to protect the lawful interests of the central organization, The Evangelical Catholic Church, which central organization through its Primate shall exercise at all times a reasonable supervision and control of the affairs ecclesiastical and temporal of this corporation.

© 1993, The Evangelical Catholic Church, All Rights Reserved
B y – L a w s :

(Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church

In the Name of The Father, and of The Son, and of The Holy Spirit. Amen.

Desiring to associate with The Evangelical Catholic Church, an Arizona Non-Profit Corporation, as a subordinate membership unit, under the spiritual and ecclesiastical direction and government of the Most Reverend Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church; to be bound to and exist perpetually as a subordinate membership unit of the same, both in civil law and ecclesiastical law; accepting and adhering to the Constitution, Canons, Administrative, Legislative and Ecclesiastical Norms and By-Laws, the faith, doctrine and order of The Evangelical Catholic Church, we the undersigned adopt the following Articles as the By-Laws of this organization, (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church.

Article I: Name & Incorporation
The name of this non-profit organization, by permission of the Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, shall be (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church. The principal office of this non-profit corporation, incorporated under the laws of the State of _____________, is to be located in the City of _______________, in the County of ______________, in the State of _____________.

Article II: Purpose

The purpose of this congregation shall be to proclaim and propagate the Evangelical Catholic Faith, especially through the Means of Grace, to provide pastoral care to its members, to teach the Word of God, to provide for the Christian training of all members, to extend the kingdom of God, and to coöperate in the programs and missions approved by The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Article III: Confession of Faith

(Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church, and every member, believes and accepts without reservation:

Section 1: The teachings of Our Lord Jesus Christ, His Apostles, and the first Öcumenical Councils of the undivided Church;

Section 2: The prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of The Old and of The New Testaments as the sole rule and standard according to which all dogma together with all teachers should be estimated and judged (F.C., Ep. 1, Trig. pg. 777);

Section 3: The three Catholic and Öcumenical Creeds as correct expressionsof the unanimous, universal Christian Faith and confession of the Orthodox and True Church, namely, The Apostles’ Creed, The Nicene Creed, and The Athanasian Creed (F.C., Ep. 2, Trig. pg. 777);

Section 4: The Symbolical Writings of The Evangelical Catholic Church as a true and unadulterated statement and exposition of The Word of God, namely, The Unaltered Augsburg Confession, The Apology of The Augsburg Confession, The Smalcald Articles, The Small and Large Catechisms of Dr. Martin Luther, and The Formula of Concord.

Article IV: Parish Organization

Section 1: The business and affairs of this parish, a non-profit organization, shall be managed by the clergyman assigned this function by the Ordinary (the Bishop under whose supervision and control this parish is placed), who shall serve under the guidance and direct supervision of the Bishop to whom he is incardinated.

Section 2: The Pastoral Office
Part a: The Pastor/Vicar is the official representative of the Bishop in his assigned parish.

Part b: In all matters involving Canon law, spiritual function, sacerdotal rights, privileges, and duties, the Priest is under the direct supervision of the Bishop to whom he is incardinated.

Part c: When the parish is considered to be self-supporting financially by the Ordinary, it shall have only one Pastor, generally designated its Rector, who shall be appointed by the Ordinary from a list of candidates nominated by the Congregational Membership of (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church.

Part d: When the parish is considered to be a mission (not self-supporting financially), it shall be served by a Priest or Deacon designated its Vicar, who shall be appointed by the Ordinary.

Part e: The Pastor/Vicar, as head of the Parish, is entrusted with the archives, the Parish Seal, baptismal records and other sacramental records; books, vestments and articles and objects of any and all kind used in the performance of the functions of the parish. The Pastor/Vicar shall:
1. Keep accurate records of all baptisms, marriages, communions, confirmations, funerals, etc.
2. Submit annual reports to The Ordinary (or more frequently if the Ordinary so directs) of:
(i) All Eucharistic celebrations at which he presided or assisted, giving date, place, attendance, collection, etc.

(ii) Communions taken to the sick, infirm, shut-in, elderly.

(iii) All baptisms, giving pertinent data (e.g., name of baptized, date and place of birth, full legal name of both parents, sponsors’ names).

(iv) All marriages, giving pertinent data and submitting a copy of the marriage certificate.

(v) All sacraments administered, giving all pertinent data.

(vi) All income received, excluding honoraria.

(vii) All disbursements on behalf of the parish.

3. Preside at all parish meetings.

4. Decline all invitations to serve in any capacity in a parish which has a Pastor unless the invitation is issued by the Bishop of the inviting parish.

Part f: As a member of Holy Orders actively engaged in an approved ministry and canonically incardinated to his Ordinary, the Pastor/Vicar shall be entitled to those benefits approved by the Ordinary. Normally his benefits would include: a monthly stipend, residence and other compensation; in case of illness or disability, and in the absence of an insured salary continuation plan, continuation of salary at 100% for three months and at 50% for 30 days thereafter; 15 paid personal vacation days each 12 months; medical/hospitalization insurance, as approved by The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Part g: Any priest assigned to the Parish to assist the Pastor shall be designated Curate. When more than one priest is assigned to support the Pastor’s ministry the priest with the greatest number of years as a priest under the jurisidiction of The Evangelical Catholic Church shall be designated the Senior Curate, the second priest shall then be designated the Junior Curate. Curates shall serve and function within the congregation entirely under the direction and supervision of the Rector, while remainig responsible to their Ordinary in all things.

Part h: The Pastor/Vicar shall visit the home of each parishioner at least once each year, and shall arrange to visit with each family to bless their homes during the Epiphany Season.

Part i: The Pastor/Vicar shall restrict his ministry to the confines of the jurisdiction belonging to the Bishop to which he is incardinated.
1. He is not permitted to invite to this parish any Bishop other than his own Ordinary and The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, whomsoever that Bishop may be; all such invitations must be directed through the Ordinary, who alone has the right to issue such invitations.

2. The Pastor/Vicar shall not permit clergy from any jurisdiction other than The Evangelical Catholic Church and jurisdictions with which The Evangelical Catholic Church is in full communion and fellowship to serve in (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church in any capacity without the prior knowledge and written approval of his Ordinary.
3. The Pastor/Vicar is encouraged to affiliate with local ministerial and clergy associations to the extent that such does not involve communio in sacris.
4. The Pastor/Vicar may accept invitations from clergy of other jurisdictions to preach, give addresses or lectures, or to read Holy Scripture, but in all such instances communio in sacris shall be strictly avoided. On such occasions he should wear clericals or choir vestments, but under no circumstances should he assist at or receive Holy Communion, neither should he wear the stole or other Eucharistic vestments.
Section 3: When deemed appropriate by the Rector, or the Ordinary in the absence of a Rector, and with the Ordinary’s approval, there shall be two parish Wardens: a Senior Warden, a Junior Warden.
Part a: Wardens shall be chrismated male members in good standing of the parish.

Part b: The Senior Warden shall be appointed by the Ordinary on the nomination of the Pastor; when there is no parish Pastor, the Senior Warden shall be appointed by the Ordinary.

Part c: The Junior Warden shall be appointed by the Pastor; when there is no parish Pastor, the Junior Warden shall be appointed by the Ordinary.

Part d: Both Wardens shall serve for a term of one year. Ordinarily no Warden shall be reäppointed more than once in succession to the same office, unless the first appointment was for less than a full year.

Part e: Specific duties of the Senior and Junior Wardens shall be assigned them from time to time by the Rector or Vicar of the parish.

Section 4: To facilitate the realization of its objects and to create and maintain a sense of Christian unity and fellowship, The Rector (or Ordinary, when there is no Rector) may establish a Parish Board.
Part a: The Parish Board shall normally consist of the Pastor/Vicar, the Senior and Junior Wardens, and one or more other lay members of the parish, of either sex, who shall be appointed by the Pastor (or Ordinary when there is no parish Pastor).

Part b: The total membership of the Parish Board shall ideally consist of one Board member for every twenty-five lay members of the parish, but should not be less than four members when possible.

Part c: The Parish Board is not empowered to act in any sense as a “board of directors;” rather, its purpose is to consult with, advise, and assist the Pastor or Vicar in his work. The Pastor/Vicar shall be Chairman of the Board and the Senior Warden shall serve as the Vice-Chairman. The Pastor/Vicar may appoint a member as Secretary.

Part d: The Parish Board shall meet at the call of the Pastor/Vicar; no meeting of the Parish Board shall be held without the Pastor’s/Vicar’s prior knowledge and consent.

Part e: In taking the consensus of the members of the Parish Board, the presiding officer may, if he so desires, call for a “vote.” The Pastor/Vicar, however, shall not be bound by the outcome of such statement of opinion.

Article V: Administration
Section 1: In order to better fulfill its God-given mandate and ministry and to realize its organizational purposes, (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church shall be a subordinate membership unit of The Evangelical Catholic Church, an Arizona Non-Profit Corporation. It shall be subject to the polity and discipline of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Section 2: In the fulfillment of its purposes as a subordinate membership unit of The Evangelical Catholic Church, this parish is empowered to:
Part a: Acquire real and personal property by gift, devise, bequest, purchase, or other lawful means;

Part b: Hold title to and use its property for any and all activities consistent with its purpose;

Part c: Sell, mortgage, lease, transfer, or otherwise dispose of its property by any lawful means;

Part d: Enter into contracts;

Part e: Sue and be sued;

Part f: Establish and maintain funds and trusts;

Part g: Accept donations, testamentary legacies and bequests;

Part h: Acquire, hold and use such funds, assets, property and other income and resources in trust for the central organization, The Evangelical Catholic Church (an Arizona Non-Profit Corporation), which shall in all instances maintain and exercise a reasonable management and control over the affairs of this subordinate membership unit.

Article VI: Congregational Membership
Section 1: Those members of the laity wishing to associate with (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church are received into fellowship by the parish Pastor/Vicar through:
Part a: Baptism by water in The Name of The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit (if not already validly baptized).

Part b: Chrismation (if not already validly confirmed). Chrismation is normally administered immediately after Baptism, but in the case of an adult convert already possessed of valid Baptism but not valid Chrismation, the rite takes place only after regular attendance at a catechetical instruction class in which the doctrine of our Holy Religion is studied and discussed and the convert reaches the point where he can wholly give his free subscription to the doctrinal confession of The Evangelical Catholic Church and (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church as recorded in Article III of these By-Laws.

Part c: Transfer from another Catholic parish upon receipt of a letter of transfer from the former parish attesting that the prospective member is in a state of saving grace.

Part d: Renewal of Faith — lapsed Catholics may be admitted upon showing evidence of a renewal of faith meeting with the Pastor’s acceptance.

Section 2: No Congregational Member shall by virtue of membership in (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church acquire any right, title, or interest in or to any property belonging to or used by (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church or The Evangelical Catholic Church (an Arizona Non-Profit Corporation).

Section 3: Congregational Membership may be terminated by the Pastor/Vicar at his discretion, for cause and after consultation with his Ordinary. Appeal in such cases shall lie to the Ordinary, whose decision shall be final.

Section 4: The Ordinary and The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church may assign individuals to membership in (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church as Congregational Members since all lay members of The Evangelical Catholic Church must hold local Congregational Membership.

Article VII: Board of Trustee Membership
Section 1: The Board of Trustee members of (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church shall be:
Part a: The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, an Arizona Non-Profit Corporation, ex officio;

Part b: The Pastor or Vicar of (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church when one has been assigned, otherwise a Cleric of rank, named and appointed by The Ordinary;

Part c: The Ordinary of the diocese in which (Name of Parish or Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church is situated, as Chief Executive Officer;

Part d: Such other person or persons, clerical or lay, as shall be named and appointed by The Ordinary.

Section 2: The Board of Trustees shall be charged with the supervision of all parish property and financial affairs, and to that end it shall:
Part a: Have the custody and control of the corporate property and make such rules and regulations as it may deem expedient for the maintenance and improvement of the parish property. The Board of Trustees may sell, mortgage, lease, or otherwise convey and dispose of the property of the corporation, but only with the prior written approval of The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Part b: Sign legal documents, make contracts, and represent the parish in court when necessary.

Part c: Appoint annually from among the Congregational Membership or its own members the Treasurer of the corporation from a list submitted by the Pastor/Vicar, with full power to remove him, subject to the laws of Christian charity and the lawful interests of the central organization, The Evangelical Catholic Church, which central organization shall exercise at all times a reasonable supervision and control over the ecclesiastical and temporal affairs of this corporation.

Part d: Appoint such officers and committees (e.g., financial secretary, stewardship committee, etc.) as are necessary to carry out its duties (including the corporation Secretary when there is no Parish Pastor/Vicar), subject to review by the central organization.

Section 3: The Pastor/Vicar is primarily responsible for the spiritual, physical, financial, and administrative welfare of this parish; he establishes the character of life and goals for (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church.

Part a: The Pastor/Vicar may organize his parish in any manner he deems appropriate, with the advise of The Board of Trustees and the permission of his Ordinary.

Part b: He shall serve as the Administrative Officer of The Board of Trustees and as President of this corporation.

Part c: With the prior consent of the Ordinary, the Pastor/Vicar shall appoint a Board of Trustee Member to serve as Secretary of the corporation, who shall serve in such office until a successor is appointed.

Article VIII: Amendments
Section 1: The Pastor/Vicar (or with the Pastor’s consent, the Parish Board) may formulate and adopt proposed amendments to these By-Laws or to The Articles of Incorporation, which must then be presented by the Pastor/Vicar to The Board of Trustees for approval or rejection.

Section 2: Proposed amendments to these By-Laws or to The Articles of Incorporation, presented by the Pastor/Vicar to The Board of Trustees and receiving The Board of Trustee’s approval, shall then be presented to The Primate and The Board of Directors of The Evangelical Catholic Church for final adoption.

Section 3: At least twelve (12) months must elapse between the meeting of The Board of Trustees which presents a proposed amendment to these By-Laws or to The Articles of Incorporation and the date the approved amendment is promulgated by The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church as effective. At any time during this twelve-month period, The Pastor/Vicar may withdraw his proposed amendment. Once a proposed amendment receives the approval and consent of The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, after consultation with The Board of Directors of The Evangelical Catholic Church, such approved amendment shall then be properly presented by The Board of Trustees of (Name of Parish/Mission) Evangelical Catholic Church to the appropriate civil authorities for registration.

+ + + In Nomine Jesu + + +

The Entrance Hymn

The clergy and servers enter in procession as the congregation sings the Entrance Hymn. Upon reaching the foot of the Altar, the Celebrant says quietly (while the congregation continues to sing the Entrance Hymn):

P: O Master, Lord our God, Who has appointed in Heaven ranks and hosts of Angels and Archangels for the ministry of Your glory: Make our ceremony a procession of Angels and Archangels, ministering with us and praising Your goodness. For to You are due all glory, honor, and worship, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, always, both now and forever, and for ages to come.
D: Amen. Bless the holy Entrance, Father (Master).

P: Blessed is the Entrance of Your saints, always, both now and forever, and for ages to come. In the Name of The Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy Spirit.
D: Amen.

The clergy enter the Sanctuary. The Celebrant kisses The Gospel Book and the Altar, saying:

P: Hail, Words of Eternal life!
Hail, Throne of The Most High!

The Celebrant stands in the midst of The Altar and reads, or the Choir sings:

The Introit

The Trisagion:

C: Holy + God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us.
Holy + God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us.
Holy + God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us.

During the singing of The Trisagion, the Celebrant blesses incense, saying in a low voice:

P: May the Lord kindle in us the fire of His love and the flame of eternal charity.

He then censes the Altar. The Deacon censes the other clergy, the servers, the choir, and The Faithful. When the censing is finished, the Celebrant says:

P: Blessed be the Holy Trinity, the Undivided Unity, Eternal, Immortal, Invisible, to Whom be all honor and glory, unto ages of ages.
C: Amen.

The Kyrie:

P: In peace let us pray to The Lord.
C: AMEN.
P: For the peace that is from above and for the salvation of our souls, let us pray to The Lord.
C: Lord, have mercy.
P: For the peace of the whole world, for the well-being of the holy churches of God, and for the unity of all, let us pray to The Lord.
C: Christ, have mercy.
P: For this holy House and for those who in faith, piety, and fear of God offer here their worship and praise, let us pray to The Lord.
C: Lord, have mercy.
P: Help, save, pity and defend us, O God, by your grace.
C: Amen.

The Canticle of Praise

(1) The Gloria in Excelsis:
(Sung from the Feast of the Nativity of Our Lord until the day before Septuagesima, and from the Feast of the Holy Resurrection of Our Lord until the day before Pentecost.)

P: Glory be to God on high!
C: And on earth peace, good will toward men. We praise You, we bless You, we worship You, we glorify You, we give thanks to You, for Your great glory. O Lord God, Heavenly King, God the Father Almighty. O Lord, the only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ; O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of The Father, You take away the sin of the world; have mercy upon us. You Who takes away the sin of the word, receive our prayer. You Who sit at the right hand of God The Father, have mercy upon us. For You only art holy; You only are The Lord. You only, O Christ, with The Holy Ghost, are most high in the glory of God The Father. Amen.

(2) The Benedictus:
(Sung during Advent and Lent.)

P: Blessed be the Lord God of Israel!
C: For He has visited and redeemed His people and has raised up a might salvation for us; in the house of His servant David; As He spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets: which have been since the world began; That we should be saved from our enemies: and from the hand of all that hate us; To perform the mercy promised to our forefathers; and to remember His holy covenant To perform the oath which He sware to our father Abraham: that He would grant unto us; That we, being delivered out of the hand of our enemies: Might serve Him without fear, In holiness and righteousness before Him: all the days of our life. And you, child, shall be called the prophet of the Highest: for you shall go before the face of the Lord to prepare His ways; To give knowledge of salvation unto His people by the remission of their sins, Through the tender mercy of our God: whereby the Day-spring from on high has visited us; To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death: to guide our feet into the way of peace. Glory be to the Father and to the Son: and to the Holy Ghost; As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

(3) The Beatitudes:
(Sung on the Feast of Pentecost and thereafter until the beginning of Advent.)

P: Remember us, O Lord, when You come into Your Kingdom!
C: Blessed are the poor in spirit:
for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven.
Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness:
for they shall be filled.
Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.
Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
Blessed are the peace-makers:
for they shall be called the children of God.
Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake:
for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven.
Blessed are you when men shall revile and persecute you
and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely for My sake.
Rejoice & be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in Heaven:
For so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.
Glory be to the Father and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit:
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

The Collect(s):

P: The Lord be with you.
C: And with you, His servant.
P: Let us pray.

All pray silently. Then the Priest prays the Collect(s) appointed for the day.

At the completion of The Collect(s), the person appointed to read the Old Testament Lesson asks a blessing of The Bishop or Priest presiding at The Liturgy.

Reader: Father (Master), bless me.
P: May the shadow and darkness of death disperse, and may the light of the Most + High illumine our intelligence.

The Old Testament Lesson

Reader: The Old Testament Lesson is written in the _______ Chapter of ____________ , beginning at the _______ verse.

The Lesson is concluded by the Reader with the words:

Reader: Here ends The Lesson.
C: Thanks be to God.

The Gradual

The Epistle Lesson

At the conclusion of The Gradual, the person appointed to read the Epistle Lesson asks a blessing of The Bishop or Priest presiding at The Liturgy.

Reader: Father (Master), bless me.
P: May The Lord be + blessed through the mouths of His Apostles.

Reader: The Epistle is written in the _______ Chapter of St. ____________’s letter to ____________ , beginning at the _______ verse.

The Epistle is concluded by the Reader with the words:

Reader:Here ends The Epistle.
C: Thanks be to God.

The Alleluia Verse/Tract

The Congregation stands when the Sacramentary is moved to The Gospel side of The Altar. The Thurifer brings the censer and incense boat to the Celebrant; the Celebrant blesses the incense using the normal formula and puts some incense into the censer.

The Reader of The Holy Gospel, standing in the midst of The Altar with hands joined, bowing, prays silently:

Reader: Cleanse my heart and lips, O Almighty God, Who cleansed the lips of the prophet Isaiah with a burning coal, and in Your gracious mercy so purify me that I may worthily proclaim Your Holy Gospel, through Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Reader of The Gospel then asks a blessing of The Bishop or Priest presiding at The Liturgy, or silently prays:

Reader: May The Lord be in my heart and on my lips, that I may worthily and competently proclaim His Holy Gospel. Amen.

Taperers procure their candles and go to stand at the foot of the Altar. When the Deacon (or Reader of The Gospel) has received The Gospel Book from the Celebrant, he turns to the congregation. At this the Thurifer, Taperers and Subdeacon turn, and the Gospel Procession proceeds to the place where the Holy Gospel is to be read or sung.

The Reader of The Gospel then continues:

The Holy Gospel

Reader: The Holy Gospel appointed to be read on this day, being ____________, is written in the _______ Chapter of St. ____________ , beginning at the _______ verse.

As The Reader says ‘the Holy Gospel appointed to be read’ he makes the Sign of The Holy Cross upon the Gospel Book at the beginning of the text to be read and then upon his forehead, lips and heart.

After the announcement of The Gospel, the Congregation responds:

C: Glory be to You, O Lord.

After the Reader has announced The Gospel, he takes the censer from the Thurifer and censes the Gospel Book. He swings the censer once to the center, once to the left, once to the right, and returns the censer to the Thurifer. The Thurifer continually swings the censer during the reading of The Holy Gospel.

The Gospel is concluded by the Reader kissing the Gospel Book at the end of the text just read and then saying:

Reader:Here ends the reading of The Holy Gospel.
C: Praise be to You, O Christ.

Reader: By the words of The Holy Gospel may our sins be blotted out.
C: Amen.

The Gospel Procession returns to the Altar. The Thurifer and Taperers deposit the censer and candles in the usual locations and take their customary places in the chancel.

The Homily or Sermon

The Creed

(1) The Nicene Creed

(Used at every celebration of The Divine Liturgy except on Holy Trinity Sunday and when the Sacrament of Initiation is observed.)

I believe in One God, The Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Only-Begotten Son of God, begotten of His Father before all the worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God: Begotten, not made, Being of one substance with The Father. By Whom all things were made. Who for us men and for our salvation came down from Heaven (here all genuflect in honour of Christ’s Incarnation) And was incarnate by The Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man (Here all rise). And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried; And the third day He rose again according to The Scriptures; And ascended into Heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of The Father; And He shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead; Whose Kingdom shall have no end.

I believe in The Holy Ghost, The Lord and Giver of life; Who proceeds from The Father. Who with The Father and The Son together is worshipped and glorified. Who spake by the Prophets. And I believe One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge One Baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for the Resurrection of the dead, And the life of the world to + come. Amen.

(2) The Apostle’s Creed

(Used at every celebration of The Divine Liturgy when the Sacrament of Initiation [Baptism/Confirmation] is observed.)
I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth.

And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord; Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; He descended into Hell; the third day He rose again from the dead; He ascended into Heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

I believe in the Holy Ghost; the Holy Catholic Church; the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and the life + everlasting. AMEN.

(3) The Athanasian Creed

(Used at every celebration of The Divine Liturgy on Holy Trinity Sunday and whenever the Celebrant deems appropriate.)
Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the Catholic Faith. Which Faith except everyone do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly. And the Catholic Faith is this: That we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity, Neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing the Substance. For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, the Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal. Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost. The Father uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Ghost uncreate. The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the Holy Ghost incomprehensible. The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Ghost eternal. And yet they are not three eternals, but one eternal. As also there are not three incomprehensibles, nor three uncreated, but one uncreated, and one incomprehensible. So likewise the Father is Almighty, the Son Almighty, and the Holy Ghost Almighty. And yet they are not three Almighties, but one Almighty. So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God. And yet they are not three Gods, but one God. So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son Lord, and the Holy Ghost Lord. And yet not three Lords, but one Lord. For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity: to acknowledge every Person by himself to be both God and Lord, So are we forbidden by the Catholic Religion, to say, There be three Gods, or three Lords. The Father is made of none, neither created, nor begotten. The Son is of the Father alone, not made, nor created, but begotten. The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son, neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding. So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; one Holy Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts. And in this Trinity none is afore, or after other; none is greater, or less than another; But the whole three Persons are co-eternal together and co-equal. So that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshipped. He therefore that will be saved must thus think of the Trinity.

Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation that he also believe rightly the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ. For the right Faith is, that we believe and confess, that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man; God, of the Substance of the Father, begotten before the worlds; and Man, of the Substance of his Mother, born in the world; Perfect God and perfect Man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting; Equal to the Father, as touching his Godhead; and inferior to the Father, as touching his Manhood. Who although he be God and Man, yet he is not two, but one Christ; One, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh, but by taking assumption of the Manhood into God; One altogether, not by confusion of Substance, but by unity of Person. For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man, so God and Man is one Christ; Who suffered for our salvation, descended into Hell, rose again the third day from the dead. He ascended into Heaven, He sitteth on the right hand of the Father, God Almighty, From whence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead. At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies And shall give account for their own works. And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and they that have done evil into everlasting fire. This is the Catholic Faith, which except a man believe faithfully, he cannot be saved. Amen,

The Pax:

P: Lord, give us at this moment love, concord, and full tranquillity, that we may raise praise and glory to You, to Your only-begotten Son and to Your Holy Spirit now and ever.
C: Amen.

P: Let us pray as we greet one another in peace.

God The Father of us all, Ruler of the universe, look from Heaven upon Your Church, upon all Your people and upon this Your congregation. Give us Your peace, Your love and Your help. Send us the gifts of Your Holy Spirit, so that with a clean heart and a good conscience we may greet one another, not deceitfully nor hypocritically but blamelessly and purely, in the bond of peace and love. Take from us the desire to control the freedom of others, for there is only one body and one Spirit, and one faith as we have been called in one hope of our calling. Bring us to the fullness of Your love in Christ Jesus, with Whom You are blessed in the unity of The Spirit, one God, forever and ever.
C: Amen.

During this period of joyous informality and Christian fellowship, all greet one another with a word of peace while extending their hands to their neighbors.

If there are several priests, they all kiss the Holy Gifts and the Altar in order of their ranks, and they exchange the Kiss of Peace as follows: They clasp their right hands, kiss each other on both shoulders and the right hand, saying in a low voice:

Priest I: Christ is in our midst.
Priest II: He is and always shall be.

The Deacon or server passes the Peace from the Celebrant to all the others, and they give it to each other.

P: The holy and divine peace being exchanged, let us bow our heads before the merciful Lord.
C: (Heads bowed.) Before You, Our Lord and Our God.

P: O Lord, bless us with Your irremovable blessings and make us worthy to do Your will.
C: Amen.

P: Lord, by this sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving which we offer to You, remove from us every filthy thought, and light our souls and sanctify our bodies that we may raise praise and glory to You, to Your only-begotten Son, and to Your Holy Spirit, now and for ever.
C: Amen.

The Offertory

While the Hymn of the Great Entrance (“Let all Mortal Flesh Keep Silence”), or another offertory hymn is sung, the monetary offerings of the people are gathered.

When The Great Entrance (Offertory Procession) is not observed, the Bread and Wine to be used in The Holy Communion, together with the monetary offerings of the people, are brought to the Altar. The Bread and Wine are placed on The Altar and the money on the Credence Table.

When the Great Entrance is observed, the Celebrant gives the Paten to the Deacon (or other assisting clergy) and takes the Chalice himself. Preceded by a Thurifer and Taperbearers, the Deacon (with the Paten) and Celebrant (with the Chalice), move in solemn procession through the Nave of the Church to the Altar. The congregation stands at the beginning of the procession. During the procession the following prayers, and any others deemed appropriate by the Celebrant, are said:

D: All of us may the Lord remember in His Kingdom, always, both now and forever, and for ages to come.
C: Amen.

P: Our (Arch)Bishop, N., and all our clergy, may the Lord remember in His Kingdom, always, both now and forever, and for ages to come.
C: Amen.

P: The President of the United States of America, the armed forces of the nation, and the American people, may the Lord remember in His Kingdom, always, both now and forever, and for ages to come.
C: Amen.

P: All the Evangelical Orthodox Catholic Christians who have gone before us to their rest, and who are asleep in the Lord (and especially the faithful departed servants of God, N., N., N.), may the Lord remember in His Kingdom, always, both now and forever, and for ages to come.
C: Amen. For the King of All we shall welcome. Angels and Saints invisibly escort Him down from Heaven. (Alleluia. Alleluia. Alleluia.)

The Celebrant shall then set the Chalice upon the Altar to the right and, taking the Paten from the Deacon, places it upon the Altar to the left. Incense is then blessed with the appropriate prayers, after which the Oblations, Altar, Priest(s), servers, and people are censed.

P: We give You thanks, our Father, for the life and knowledge You have revealed to us through Jesus, Your Son. To You be glory forever. As this broken bread was once scattered as seed upon the fields and after being harvested was made one, so let Your Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Your Kingdom, for Yours is the glory and the power through Christ Jesus forever.
C: Amen.

P: We give thanks, our Father, for Your Holy Name and for the life and immortality You sent us through Jesus, Your Son. To You be glory forever. Let us raise The Cup of Salvation and call upon The Name of The Lord. The Cup of Blessing for which we give thanks is the Communion of The Blood of Christ.
C: Amen.

P: Saint Luke The Evangelist wrote of our risen Lord that when He was at Table with the Disciples at Emmaus, He took bread and blessed it, broke it, and gave it to them. Their eyes were opened and they recognized Him. This is Christ’s Table. Our Savior invites those who trust in Him to share The Feast which He has prepared. Let us open our hearts to one another as Christ has opened His heart to us, and God will be glorified.
C: Amen.

The Eucharistic Prayer:

P: The Lord be with you.
C: And with you, His servant.
P: Lift up your hearts.
C: We lift them up unto The Lord.
P: Let us give thanks to The Lord our God.
C: It is meet and right so to do.

P: It is truly meet, right and salutary that we should at all times and in all places give thanks to You, O Lord, Holy Father, Almighty, Everlasting God.

(Here should follow the Proper Preface, if there be any appointed, followed with:)

We thank You, Almighty Lord, that You are a God of all mankind, that You are not ashamed to be called our God, that You know us by our name, that You keep the world in Your hands. For You have made us and called us in this life to be united to You, to be Your people on this earth. Blessed are You, Maker of all that exists. Blessed are You, Who has given us space and time to live in. We thank You for the whole of creation, for all the works of Your hands, for all You have done in our midst, through Christ Jesus, our Lord. Therefore we praise Your Majesty, Almighty God, with all Your faithful people; therefore we bow before You and adore You with the words:

C: Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth; Heaven and earth are full of Your glory. Hosanna (Hosanna, Hosanna) in the highest. Blessed is + He (Blessed is He, Blessed is He) Who cometh in the Name of the Lord. (Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna in the highest.)

P: With those blessed Powers we also, O Master Who loves all humanity, cry aloud and say: Blessed are You, Almighty God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, blessed are You. Before the foundation of the world You chose us to be Your children. You have liberated us from the power of darkness and brought us into the Kingdom of Your dear Son, the very image and reflection of Your glory. For Him the universe was made. In Him we have received redemption and forgiveness of sins.

(The Celebrant takes the Paten with the Holy Bread into his hands and signs the Holy Bread with the Sign of The Cross, saying:)

Our Lord Jesus Christ, the same night in which He was betrayed, took bread; and when He had given thanks, He brake it and gave it to His disciples, saying:

Take, eat; this is My + Body which is given for you for the remission of sin. Do this in remembrance of Me.

(The Celebrant takes the Chalice with the Holy Wine into his hands and signs the Holy Wine with the Sign of The Cross, saying:)

After the same manner also He took The Cup when He had supped, and when He had given thanks, He gave it to them saying:

Drink ye all of it; this Cup is the new testament in My + Blood, which is shed for you and for all for the remission of sins. This do, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of Me.

C: Christ has died. Christ is risen. Christ will come again.

P: When we eat of this Bread and drink from this Cup, we proclaim the death of The Lord until He comes. Therefore, Lord, our God, we commemorate that Christ had to suffer and die, but most of all that He is the first-born from the dead, the first born of the whole creation; that glorified at Your right hand, He speaks on our behalf; and that He will come to judge the living and the dead on the day which You have appointed. We beseech and pray and entreat You, O Lord our God, send down Your Holy Spirit upon us and upon these gifts here set forth.

(The Celebrant signs the Holy Bread with the Sign of The Cross, saying:)
And make this bread the Sacred + Body of Your Christ.

(The Celebrant makes the Sign of The Cross over The Chalice, saying:)
And make that which is in this Cup the Precious + Blood of Your Christ.

(The Celebrant makes the Sign of The Cross over both The Holy Gifts, saying:)

Changing them by Your Holy Spirit so that they may become to those who partake for vigilance of soul, for forgiveness of sins, for fellowship with The Holy Spirit, for the fullness of the Kingdom of Heaven, for boldness towards You, not for judgement or for condemnation. We pray that we may surrender ourselves completely to Your service, and that, in the midst of this world, and before the eyes of all Your people, we may live Your Gospel and be the sign of Your peace; that we may support and serve each other in love; that our hearts may be opened to the poor, the sick, and the dying, and to all who are in need, that so we may be The Church of Jesus Christ, united with all faithful people everywhere.

Most high and holy God, we humbly ask You to accept these Your own gifts which we offer to Your divine goodness, together with this, the sacrifice of our thanksgiving and the incense of our prayers. And here we would present and yield ourselves to You, asking You to make us true members incorporate in the mystical body of Your Son, Christ Jesus our God, so that, in communion with Your whole Church, we may make a pure offering to Your Name. O Lord, hear our prayer.
C: And let our cry come unto You.

P: Hear our prayer, O Lord, for the Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, that You will confirm Her in the truth of Your Holy Faith, inspire Her with unity and concord, and extend and prosper Her throughout the world. We beseech You, Lord, remember all the orthodox episcopate who rightly divide the word of Your Truth, all the priesthood, the diaconate in Christ, and all clergy, that by their life and doctrine they may set forth Your true and living Word and rightly administer Your holy Sacraments. Above all, remember, O Lord, all our holy and reverent spiritual Fathers, our rulers who are over us today in this life and tend and govern the holy churches of God that are in every place, especially ________________ and our prelate, Bishop Karl, being appointed by God with the rest of all bishops and spiritual Fathers of the Orthodox and Catholic Faith. O Lord, hear our prayer.
C: And let our cry come unto You.

P: We commemorate before You, O Lord, those who rest in faith: the fathers, patriarchs, prophets, apostles, preachers, evangelists, martyrs, confessors, doctors, ascetics, and all the righteous perfected in The Faith, especially our highly glorious, blessed Lady, Mother of God and ever-virgin Mary, Saint John the prophet, forerunner and Baptist, all the holy, glorious and honored Apostles; (and especially ____________ whose memorial we are keeping this day) and all Your saints. Be mindful of all those who have fallen asleep before us in the hope of resurrection unto life eternal (especially ____________, and those whom we now name in our hearts before You: N., N., N._____). We praise You for the mercy and blessings shown them in their lifetime and pray You to grant us a place in their fellowship and eternal life in Your Kingdom. O Lord, hear our prayer.
C: And let our cry come unto You.

P: Finally, O Lord, we pray for ourselves, for all who confess the Name of Christ our God, for N., N., N., and for those whom we now name in our hearts before You: (___________), that we, with them, may show forth the praises of Him Who has called us out of darkness into His marvelous light. Grant that we, who do now celebrate this feast of love, may at the last be clothed with the white robes of those who shall join in the marriage supper of The Lamb. Through Him and with Him and in Him You are blessed and praised, Lord our God, Almighty Father, in union with The Holy Spirit, today and all days, forever.
C: Amen.

P: And vouchsafe, O Lord, that boldly and without condemnation we may dare to call upon You, the Heavenly God, as Father and say:

C: Our Father Who art in Heaven. Hallowed be Thy Name; Thy Kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in Heaven; Give us this day our daily bread; And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us; And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from + evil. For Thine is the Kingdom and the power and the glory forever and ever. Amen.

The Celebrant presents the Holy Gifts to The Faithful, saying:

P: The gifts of God for the people of God.
C: One only is holy, One only is The Lord: Jesus Christ, in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

Here The Celebrant breaks the Host into four pieces, with all heedfulness and awe, saying:

P: Broken and divided is the Lamb of God, Which is broken yet not disunited; Which is ever eaten, yet never consumed, but sanctifies those who partake thereof.
C: Amen.

Then the Celebrant, arranging the broken pieces on the rim of the Paten in the form of a cross, takes the upper portion of the broken Host, making therewith the Sign of The Cross above the Holy Chalice and shall place it in the Holy Chalice saying:

P:The fullness of the Cup, of the Faith, of The Holy Spirit.
C: Amen.

Next the Celebrant shall bless the Zeon, which represents the water which came forth from the side of our Lord with His Precious Blood when His side was pierced by the Roman soldier while He hung on The Cross at Golgotha, showing that, although He was dead, His Body was not devoid of divine virtue — that is, the warmth and vitality of The Holy Spirit. The union of these elements symbolizes our Lord’s Resurrection. The Celebrant blesses the Zeon, saying:

P: Blessed is the fervor of Thy Saints always, now, and ever, and unto ages of ages.
C: Amen.

Then the Celebrant shall pour a sufficient quantity of the Zeon into the Holy Chalice, in the form of a cross, saying:

P: The fervor and warmth of Faith, full of The Holy Spirit.
C: Amen.

The Adoration (Agnus Dei)

C: O Christ, Thou Lamb of God, that takest away the sin of the world, have mercy upon us. O Christ, Thou Lamb of God, that takest away the sin of the world, have mercy upon us. O Christ, Thou Lamb of God, that takest away the sin of the world, grant us Thy peace. Amen.

Preparation

(Then all join in the following prayer.)

C: I believe, O Lord, and I confess that You are truly The Christ, the Son of the Living God, Who came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief. And I believe that this is truly Your own Immaculate Body, and that this is truly Your own Precious Blood. Wherefore I pray, have mercy upon me and forgive me my transgressions both voluntary and involuntary, of word and of deed, whether committed with knowledge or in ignorance; and make me worthy to partake without condemnation of Your Immaculate Mysteries, unto the remission of my sins and unto life everlasting. Amen.

The Distribution

The Celebrant should first receive the Holy Communion himself, and then all assisting clergy, after which the Blessed Sacrament should be given to the Faithful.

While the clergy and Faithful make their communions, the congregation or choir sings the Communion Verse for the day or a Communion Hymn.

The Celebrant and all concelebrating or assisting clergy, receiving the Body, say in a low voice:

Hail, Most Precious Body of Christ! The Most Precious Body of Our Lord and God and Savior, Jesus Christ, is given to me, _______________, unworthy Priest (or Bishop, or Deacon) for the remission of sins and for life eternal.

Receiving the Holy Chalice, each says:

Hail, Heavenly Cup, which is sweet to me above all others! The Most Precious Blood of our Lord and God and Savior, Jesus Christ, is given to me, _______________, unworthy Priest (or Bishop, or Deacon) for the remission of sins and for life eternal.

Kissing the Holy Chalice, each says:

This has touched my lips, and has taken away my sins.

The Celebrant and the Deacon (or other assisting clergy) then take up The Chalice and Paten (or Ciborium) and go to the Altar Rail, where they face the Faithful. The Deacon says:

D: Behold the Lamb of God, Who takes away the sins of the world. With fear of God, with faith and love, draw near.

The Faithful approach to receive the Sacred Body and Most Precious Blood. The Blessed Sacrament should be given to all Baptized/Chrismated members of the parish (infants, youth and adults).

The Thanksgiving

When all have received the Blessed Sacrament, the Celebrant says:

P: Having partaken of the Divine, Holy, Pure, Immortal, Heavenly, Life-Giving and terrible Mysteries of Christ, O Believers, let us worthily give thanks unto the Lord our God.
C: Lord, have mercy.

P: Help us, save us, have mercy upon us, and keep us, O God, by Your grace.
C: Lord, have mercy.

P: Praying that this whole day may be perfect, holy, peaceful and sinless, let us commend ourselves and each other and all our life unto Christ our God.
C: To You, O Lord.

P: For You are our sanctification and unto You we ascribe glory, to The Father, and to The Son, and to The Holy Spirit, now and ever and unto ages of ages.
C: Amen.

P: O give thanks unto The Lord, for He is good.
C: And His mercy endures forever.

The Nunc Dimittis

C: Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart + in peace according to Thy word, For mine eyes have seen Thy Salvation: Which Thou hast prepared before the face of all people, a Light to lighten the Gentiles and the Glory of Thy people Israel. Glory be to The Father and to The Son and to The Holy Ghost; As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

The Dismissal

P: Let us depart in peace.
C: In the Name of The Lord.

P: Let us pray to The Lord.
C: Almighty and ever-living God, we thank You for having fed us with The Body and Blood of our Savior Jesus Christ, assuring us thereby that we are truly members of His Body, The Church. And we ask You to help us by Your Holy Spirit that we may continue in this fellowship and do the good works which You desire us to do; through Christ Jesus, Your Son, Our Lord, to Whom, with You and the same Spirit, be all honor and glory, forever and ever. Amen.

The Benediction

P: The Lord bless you and keep you. The Lord make His face shine upon you and be gracious to you. The Lord life up His countenance upon you and give you + peace.
C: Amen.

(Or the following may be used:)

P: The blessing of God Almighty, The Father, The + Son, and The Holy Spirit, be among you and remain with you always.
C: Amen.

The following Benediction is used when given by the Bishop:

B: Blessed be The Name of The Lord.
C: From this time forth for evermore.

B: Our help is in The Name of The Lord.
C: Who made Heaven and earth.

B: The Peace of God which passes all understanding keep your hearts and minds in the knowledge and love of God, and of His Son, Christ Jesus our Lord: And the Blessing of God Almighty, the + Father, the + Son, and the Holy + Spirit, be among you and remain with you always.
C: Amen.

D: The Liturgy is ended; go in peace.
C: Thanks be to God.

P r o p e r P r e f a c e s

Advent:
Who prepared the way for Your only Son, that we, who have walked in the darkness of our sin, may be brought to the clear light and to the true knowledge of You.

Christmas:
Who, in the mystery of The Word made flesh, has given us a new revelation of Your glory; that seeing You in the person of Your Son, we may be drawn to the love of those things which are not seen.

Epiphany:
Who, through Christ Jesus our Lord, born a true man, lived among us to reveal Your glory and love, that our darkness should give way to His own brilliant light.

Lent:
Who on the Tree of The Holy Cross freely gave salvation to all mankind that, where death arose, there Life also might rise again; and that He Who by a tree once overcame might likewise by a tree be overcome.

Maundy Thursday:
Who sends our Savior, Jesus the Christ, to institute these Holy Mysteries, that we, redeemed by His death and quickened by His Resurrection, might have our part in this life-giving Feast.

The Holy Feast (Easter, Pascha):
We chiefly praise You this Easter (night, day, season) for the glorious Resurrection of Your Son, Christ Jesus our God and only Savior, Who is the very Paschal Lamb which was sacrificed for us and thereby delievered the world from sin; Who, by His death, has destroyed death and by His Resurrec-tion to life has restored everlasting life to us.

Ascension:
Through Christ Jesus our Lord, Who, after His Resurrection, openly appeard to all His disciples, and in their sight was bodily taken up into Heaven that He might make us partakers of His Divine Nature.

Pentecost:
Through Christ Jesus our Lord, Who, having ascended above the heavens and sitting at Your right hand, sent on this day The Holy Spirit to all His disciples to comfort and guide us, as He promised, for which gift the whole earth rejoices with exceeding joy.

Trinity:
Who, with Your only-begotten Son and The Holy Spirit, are one God, one Lord. And in this confession of the only true God, we worship the Trinity in Person and the Unity in Substance, of Majesty co-equal.

St. Mary:
And that on the . . . of St. Mary Ever-Virgin, we should praise, bless, and tell forth Your wonders; that by the overshadowing of the Holy Spirit, she conceived Your Only Begotten Son, and without let to the glory of here abiding maidenhood, brought forth for man eternal light, even Christ Jesus our Lord.

Transfiguration:
Through Christ Jesus our Lord, Who, in the substance of our mortal flesh, manifested His glory, that He might bring us out of darkness into everlasting light.

All Saints:
Who, in the multitude of all Your holy saints has surrounded us with so great a cloud of witnesses, that we, rejoicing in their fellowship, may run with patience the race which You have set before us, and with them gain the crown of glory which never fades.

Apostles and Evangelists:
Especially because You have governed and protected Your Holy Church, which the blessed Apostles and Evangelists have instructed in Your divine and saving truth, through Christ Jesus, our Lord.

The Faithful Departed:
Through Christ Jesus our Lord, in Whom the hope of blessed resurrection has been made known to us, that those who grieve because of them who have already fallen asleep in The Faith may be consoled by the assurance of everlasting life through Christ Jesus our God and Savior.

Church — Dedication, Anniversary:
Who, though the heavens cannot contain Your Majesty, and Your glory is in all the world: Yet You deign to bless and hallow physical places for Your Word and Sacraments, and pour forth through these structures the gift of grace upon all who trust in You.

One of the major concerns of modern society is human rights and empowerment. We are constantly bombarded with reports on struggles – peaceful and violent – by which people seek to secure their rights from those whom they believe to be restricting them. The Church is not immune to this struggle for rights and empowerment, which, as it fragments society, also creates divisions and brings conflict and violence into the Church.

One of the questions of the moment in this struggle for rights is whether to ordain women to the office and work of Pastor/Priest in The Church, which is the holy and pure Bride of Christ. The question is not whether women are qualified or have the gifts and talents to serve as priests. There can really be no debate on the gifts and talents of women. However, a woman’s abilities and qualifications are properly not germane to this question. The question really is, what is God’s plan? Has He spoken on this issue?

Although quoting the Symbols, the Church Doctors and Fathers, and even Biblical “proof texts” is not an accepted practice in modern theology, this traditional Catholic methodology is just the approach taken by Father Rudolph Kurz, D.D., in Feminism and The Church. This work is a skillful and timely rehearsal of Catholic doctrine and practice, for the attempt to ordain women to the office and work of Priest in the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church is to accept another, a pagan and non-Christian, Gospel – another, a non-Scriptural, Christ. It means the end of historic Christianity.

Most of the arguments made for or against the ordination of women have been based on secular humanism and gnosticism. Father Kurz’ discussion of the issue is therefore a most welcome and happy return to a truly Catholic perspective.

Those who seek to honestly understand why the historic Catholic jurisdictions of Christendom so strongly oppose the ordination of women – an opposition which, to the world, is so stubborn and irrational – must read this work: Feminism and The Church. But be cautioned: An open and unprejudiced reading of Dr. Kurz’ long-needed apology of The Church’s Biblical and traditional position on the ordination of women may result in unexpected benefits and changes to your religious outlook and, perhaps, faith. Feminism and The Church may even change your understanding of The Church – for the better!

The Mt. Rev’d Fr. Karl J. Barwin, Th.D.
Metropolitan, The Evangelical Catholic Church

Coming Soon.

… it is our greatest wish to maintain the old church regulations and the government of bishops, which one terms canonicam politiam [canonical polity], provided the bishops allow our doctrine and receive our priests.
Apology of the Augsburg Confession, XIV, 24, German
The Evangelical Catholic Church sees Episcopal administration and Apostolic Succession as analogous to the formulation of the doctrines of the Trinity, Christology, Grace and the sacraments, i.e., a divinely willed, Spirit-directed development within The Church, the character of which is really and truly ecumenical because it took place uniformly both in the East and in the West. In the tripartition of the priestly office (deacon, priest, bishop) vibrates the triadic rhythm of the eternal divine life; in the monarchial bishop the ascended Christ, the invisible Head of The Church, becomes visible; and in the chain of bishops, consecrated by episcopal imposition of hands, the unbroken continuity is visualized, which unites The Church of this century with The Church of The Apostles. Thus the bonds of The Evangelical Catholic Church with those first days in Nazareth and Galilee remain unbroken, assured both by its faithful proclamation of The Gospel in all its apostolic purity and by its regular episcopal ordination of Bishops in Apostolic Succession. The ministry of our Bishops is in direct continuity with that of the Apostles of Jesus our God and only Redeemer. The Evangelical Catholic Church possesses both a valid Apostolic Succession and a faithful transmission of The Gospel in all its truth and purity.

The Evangelical Catholic understanding of The Church is based upon the principle, attested to in the Canons and Tradition of the Primitive Church, that each local community of The Faithful, gathered around Her Bishop and celebrating The Eucharist, is the local realization of the whole Body of Christ. “Where Christ is, there is the Catholic Church,” ( Ignatius of Antioch, c. AD 100).

In the office of The Bishop is the fullness of the priesthood; the presbyter (priest) and deacon have the right to exercise only a portion of The Bishop’s responsibilities and duties–they cannot function at all unless they are canonically subject to a Catholic and Orthodox Bishop (from whom they derive their rights, powers and responsibilities and to whom they are accountable).

The life and vitality of The Body of Christ, realized in each local community, is identical with that of all the other local churches in the present and in the past. This reality and continuity is manifested in the act of the consecration of bishops — an act that requires the presence of several other bishops in order to constitute a conciliar act and to witness to the continuity of apostolic succession, faith and tradition.

Since the Bishop is primarily the guardian of the faith and, as such, the center of the sacramental life of The Faithful committed into his care, The Evangelical Catholic Church (with Dr Martin Luther and the other conservative Reformers of the Occidental Church) maintains the doctrine of apostolic succession — i.e., the understanding that the ministry of the Bishop is in direct continuity with that of The Apostles. The Evangelical Catholic Church values Her ability to trace the consecration and ordination of Her clergy back to the Twelve Apostles of Christ and Her Beliefs to those espoused by the Catholic and Orthodox Church of all times and all places.

The Apostolic Succession
from
The Armenian Church

(The Apostolic Orthodox Church of Armenia)
The origins of The Church of Armenia are traced to The First Enlighteners of Armenia, two of the Twelve Apostles: St. Thaddeus (martyred in 66 A.D. in Armenia) and St. Bartholomew (martyred in 68 A.D. in Armenia). It is St. Gregory, however, who is credited with converting first King Tiridates of Armenia to Christianity and then the whole Armenian nation. The Kingdom of Armenia was the first nation to become Christian in the whole world.
Soon after the King’s conversion, St. Gregory was consecrated a Bishop. In obedience to a vision from Our Lord, Bishop Gregory built the first Christian Cathedral in the world in 303 A.D. with the support of the King. This cathedral was built in Vagharshapat, the capital of Armenia, not far from Mt. Ararat. In memory of the vision from our Lord to build this cathedral, the cathedral was named Holy Etchmiadzin (i. e., the place where The Only-Begotten Descended). Holy Etchmiadzin is still the official Seat of the head of the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church.

The Church of Armenia participated in the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea (325 A.D.), with St. Aristakes, the younger son of St. Gregory the Enlightener, representing his ailing father.

The Patriarch of Armenia was the first to use the title Catholicos, a practice since adopted by many neighboring jurisdictions in the Near East.

In 485 A.D. the Seat of the Armenian Catholicos was moved from Holy Etchmiadzin to Dvin , where a Synod of Armenian, Georgian, and Caspio-Albanian Bishops in 506 A.D. confessed The Faith of the Third Ecumenical Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) while rejecting Nestorianism and the acts of the Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.). When Dvin was sacked by the Muslims in 927 A.D., the Catholicos’ Seat was moved first to Aghtamar in Lake Van then to the fortified city of Ani. When Ani was captured by the Greeks in 1045 A.D., the Catholicos’ Seat was moved to Romkla on the Euphrates River, then again transferred (c. 1293 A.D.) to Sis, the capital of the Cilician Armenian Kingdom. In 1441 A.D. the Seat was returned to Holy Etchmiadzin.

Several subsidiary Armenian Patriarchates emerged over the centuries. During the occupation of Armenia by the Arabs in the 7th century, the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem was recognized. Bishop Abraham was the first Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem (638–669 A. D.). The Patriarchate of Aght’amar was established as the result of a schism within the Church of Armenia in 1113 A.D. The Armenian Patriarchate of Sis was created in 1441 A.D. The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople was created in 1461 A.D. by the Ottoman government soon after their conquest of Turkey. The Catholic Armenian Patriarchate of Cilicia was created by Rome in 1742 A.D. The Patriarchates of Aght’amar and Albania (which was semi-independent from the earliest of times) have lapsed. All the Armenian Patriarchates (except the Catholic Patriarchate of Cilicia) acknowledge The Patriarch of Holy Echmiadzin as first among equals.

The Turkish genocide against Armenian nationals in 1890–1915 A.D. dealt a severe blow to The Armenian Church and decimated the Armenian population in Eastern Turkey. Of the 5,000 priests living before the Turkish massacres of Armenians, only 400 were still alive at the end of World War I. Because of this loss of population, the Patriarchate of Aght’amarian was abandoned. The Patriarchal See of Sis was confiscated by the Turkish government (c. 1920) . The Catholicos/Patriarch of Sis, Sahak II, with the help of the Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem and the French, moved south to Antelias, north of Beirut, Lebanon.

The Primate of The Church of Armenia bears the title: Patriarch and Catholicos of All the Armenians.

Apostolic Succession
from
The Church of Armenia

Gregory Petros VIII, Catholicos-Patriarch of Cilicia of The Armenians, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:
Leon Chorchorunian on 7 April 1861 A.D. as Titular Archbishop of Malatia. Archbishop Chorchorunian consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Leon Chechemian on 23 April 1879 A.D. as “a Bishop at Malatia, Asia Minor”. Bishop Chechemian consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

James Martin on 2 November 1890 A.D. as Archbishop of Caerleon-upon-Usk. Archbishop Martin consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Benjamin Charles Harris on 25 July 1915 A.D. as Bishop of Essex. Bishop Harris consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Charles Leslie Saul on 17 November 1944 A.D. at St. Paul’s Church, Outwood, near Radcliffe, Manchester, England. On 8 September 1945 A.D. Bishop Saul was given the title and position of Archbishop of Suthronia in the Eparchy of All the Britons. Archbishop Saul consecrated s.c. to the sacred Episcopate:

Herman Philippus Abbinga on 28 November 1946 A.D. as Missionary Bishop for Holland and Indonesia, assisting Mar Georgius of the Catholic Apostolic Church and Bishop Richard Kenneth Hurgon of The Order of Christ Our Most Holy Redeemer and King. Bishop Abbinga consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate:

Perry Nikolaus Cedarholm on 31 May 1953 A.D. in Oslo, Norway, as Bishop of Scandinavia for The Apostolic Episcopal Church. Bishop Cedarholm consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Nils Bertil Alexander Persson on 12 December 1971 A.D. with the title of Mar Alexander, Titular Bishop of Smyrna. Bishop Persson is Director of St. Ephrem’s Institute for Eastern Christianity Studies (founded in 1896 A.D.). He was enthroned as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 7 November 1986 A.D. Archbishop Persson consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Karl Julius Barwin on 5 August 1989 A.D. as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

(Return)

The Apostolic Succession
from
The Russian Orthodox Church
(Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov)
In the ninth century the Rus (or Varangians) became masters of what is now western Russia and the indigenous Slavic population. Their chief centers of population were Novgorod, in the north, and Kiev, in the south (now part of the Ukraine). This ruling minority of mostly Swedish Vikings soon adopted the Slavonic tongue and customs of their subjects.
Tradition credits Saint Andrew The First-Called with planting the seeds of Christianity in the area about Kiev. These seeds were nurtured by the ministry of Saints Cyril & Methodius, now known as the Apostles of the Slaves, in The Ukraine beginning in AD 864, using the native language. They invented a Slavic alphabet (based upon the Greek), which is still used today. The north shore of The Black Sea had been settled by Christians at least as early as the fourth century. The Khazars, rulers of what is now southern Russia, had adopted Judaism. However, the missionary efforts supported by Patriarch Photius of Constantinople to the Khazars was so successful that they soon asked for a Bishop of their own. Just a few years later Emperor Basil I (“The Macedonian”) and Patriarch Ignatius commissioned a missionary Bishop to the Russians, who made many converts.

The first known Christian ruler over the Kievan State is Saint Olga (Olha), dowager regent, who received Christian baptism in AD 950. Although she sent to Emperor Otto I of Germany for missionaries, they seemed to have had no marked success. It is Saint Vladimir (Volodymyr The Great), the grandson of St. Olga, who accepted baptism himself about AD 986 and then in AD 988 commanded the Christianization of his entire State, who is recognized as having initiated the conversion of Russia. Although St. Vladimir received delegates from The Pope and sent representatives to Rome, it was The Church of Constantinople which won his support. At the time of his death, in AD 1015, there were three bishoprics in his domains; based upon the foundations laid by St. Vladimir, Christianity continued its gradual, steady spread throughout Russia. The Metropolitan of Kiev, for centuries the administrative head of The Russian Church, was appointed by the Patriarch of Constantinople; he was usually a Greek, unfamiliar with The Faithful of Russia. The clergy were poorly trained and almost always too few for the size of the country. The priests were chosen by their parishioners, while the bishops (a substantial minority of whom were also foreigners with little understanding of the customs or language of their flocks) were selected by the local princes.

The establishment of an independent Russian Church coincided with the decline of The Byzantine Empire, and the simultaneous rise of The Russian Empire. This process was helped when Kiev was destroyed during the Tartar invasion, and the Metropolitan consequently forced to move to Moscow (AD 1320). After the Grand Duke of Moscow (Ivan III) married a daughter of the nearest relative of the last Emperor of Constantinople, he claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Emperors. He even adopted the double-headed eagle, symbol of Imperial Byzantine power. Later, beginning in AD 1547, the princes of the Russian State, as successors of the Byzantine Emperors, began calling themselves Czar (i.e., “Caesar”). It was only natural that they would seek the prestige of a self-governing independent Church in order to bolster their own temporal claims. Although the Russian Church claimed autocephaly from AD 1448, when the Russian Bishops began electing their own Primate (the Metropolitan of Moscow), official recognition of this independence by the ancient and historic patriarchates was not secured until AD 1590 (one year after Jeremiah II, Patriarch of Constantinople, was persuaded to invest Iob, the 46th Metropolitan of Moscow, as the first Russian Patriarch — although Iob had been promoted to the rank of Patriarch by the Russian Bishops in AD 1453) at a meeting in Constantinople of all the Patriarchs of the historic Sees. When Constantinople fell to the Moslems on 29 May 1453, Russia became the only nation where the freedom of The Orthodox Church remained unrestricted; this favorably influenced their claim for an independent Patriarchate.

The Time of Troubles (civil war) which began in AD 1598 upon the death of Czar Fedor (Theodore), the childless son of Ivan IV, increased the Patriarch’s political influence. It reached its height under Patriarch Filaret, whose son, Michael, at the age of sixteen, became the first Czar of the Romanov Dynasty. When Patriarch Adrian died in AD 1700, Czar Peter The Great refused to allow the election of a new Patriarch, leaving Stefan Iavorskii as Locum Tenens for 21 years. In AD 1721 Czar Peter finally promulgated a new constitution for The Church, which suspended the office of Patriarch and placed the governance of The Church under an Holy Synod.

Copying the example of Henry VIII of England, the government-imposed new Church constitution made The Czar the Head of The Church of Russia. It went further than King Henry, however, by providing for a Lay Procurator (a government official) to administer The Church’s day-to-day affairs. This “constitutional” subjugation of The Church to the Russian State established the precedent of direct governmental control over and interference in all the affairs of The Russian Orthodox Church — a practice continued until the end of the 20th century by the atheistical government of the U.S.S.R.

After the overthrow of Czar Nikolai II in March of AD 1917, The Russian Orthodox Church immediately convened a national Sobor to reform The Church and revive the Patriarchate of Moscow, which Czar Peter The Great had suspended. Metropolitan Tikhon, who had earlier been Russian Archbishop in America, won the election and assumed the office of Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia in November of that year, almost simultaneously with the outbreak of the Communist Revolution. This All-Russian Council (Sobor) attempted to restore sobornost — the active participation of the whole Church (bishops, clergy, and laity) in every aspect of the Church’s life, in contrast to the bureaucratic centralization which had ruled The Church under the secular and often hostile government of Russia since the creation of The Holy Synod by Czar Peter The Great.

The new reäctionary Communist government of Russia immediately placed severe restrictions upon the revitalized and reforming Church of Russia. In view of the vigorous anti-religion activities of the new Russian government, Patriarch Tikhon issued a statement in AD 1917 urging The Russian Faithful to act independently to preserve The Church. Some of the Bishops of The Russian Church attempted to heed The Patriarch’s advice by establishing a separate independent Church administration in southeastern Russia. The advance of the Bolsheviks, however, forced these faithful shepherds into exile.

In November of 1920 these refugee Bishops organized The Supreme Church Administration for Churches Outside of Russia in Istanbul (Constantinople), with the approval of The Öcumenical Patriarch. At the invitation of The Patriarch of Serbia, The Supreme Church Administration moved to Yugoslavia. Twelve of these Bishops, with representatives of the clergy and laity, organized a Sobor at Sremski Karlovtsi, Yugoslavia, on 21 November to 2 December 1921, under the presidency of Anthony Khrapovitski, Metropolitan of Kiev and Galich and under the canonical authority of an ukase (i.e., an Edict having the force of law) issued in AD 1920 by Patriarch Tikhon. The result of this meeting was the organization of The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, sometimes called The Synodal Church.

Patriarch Tikhon, who vigorously opposed the inhumane and atheistic policies of the revolutionary regime, was cruelly imprisoned on 9 May 1922. The Communists refused to permit an election for his successor when he died in AD 1925. Metropolitan Petr of Krutica became Locum Tenes (Patriarchal Vicar), but he, too, was almost immediately imprisoned. He was succeeded later that year by Sergii, the Metropolitan of Nizhni-Novgorod, who tried to make peace with the new Soviet government. Although he suffered temporary imprisonment (December AD 1926 to April 1927), he issued a declaration in July of AD 1927 changing The Church’s official stance towards the Communist government from one of hostility to one of praise and coöperation. Outside observers have called this declaration of The Metropolitan either the great betrayal or the great salvation of The Russian Church.

The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia naturally disapproved of the coöperation between the Patriarchal Church and the atheistic Communist government in Russia, as first formulated in the letters issued by Metropolitan (later Patriarch) Sergii in AD 1926 and AD 1927. Because of the inappropriate influence seemingly exercised by the anti-religious government of Russia, The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia refused to recognize The Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia in any way on the grounds that the Communist government completely controlled the patriarchate.

With the invasion of Mother Russia by the Nazis (Russia’s former ally in the partition of Poland at the beginning of World War II), the political climate changed in Moscow. Metropolitan Sergii urged The Faithful to sincerely support the Russian war effort against the Nazis; he issued calls to arms, organized fund raising rallies, and did everything possible to ensure the protection of his people and the defense of The Church. By 1 October 1944 The Church had donated 150,000,000 rubles, as well as gifts “in kind,” to the Communist government. These many sacrifices and contributions for Russia gained him the favorable attention of the then current Communist Dictator, Josef Stalin, who finally granted the Metropolitan’s request for new patriarchal elections. Sergii was elected Patriarch on 7 September 1943; he unfortunately died within six months. After that The Kremlin permitted subsequent elections within a year of each vacancy and had made The Orthodox Church of Russia one of the few officially recognized Christian organizations in the Soviet Union — following the precedent established by Czar Peter The Great. The Sobor to elect the new Patriarch was held 31 January to 2 February 1945. The Patriarch of Alexandria, Patriarch of Antioch, and the Catholicos of Georgia attended this Sobor, together with 44 Russian Bishops, 126 clergy, and representatives of the laity. The Sobor elected Alexis as the new Russian Patriarch. They thus established a “working model” for the other European Communist countries to follow in dealing with Religion. However, all other potential national Orthodox jurisdictions within the then-U.S.S.R., with the exception of the ancient and historic patriarchates of Armenia and Georgia, were merged into the Moscow Patriarchate, as were some Eastern-Rite Roman Catholics and many other Christian jurisdictions and sects.

The Orthodox Church of Russia has been increasingly active in international Orthodox and ecumenical affairs during the last few decades of the 20th Century. She has been particularly vocal before the World Council of Churches and elsewhere in encouraging anti-nuclear and anti-war movements throughout the world. The Primate of The Church of Russia bears the title: Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. The official language of The Church is naturally Russian.

Metropolitan Antonii became the first head of The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, with his Seat at Geneva, Switzerland. He was succeeded in AD 1936 by Metropolitan Anastasii (who died in AD 1965), who was followed on his retirement by Metropolitan Filaret, in 1964. The chief See of the Metropolitan was moved during World War II to Munich, Germany, and in AD 1952 to New York City. Since then The Synodal Church has attracted The Faithful from other exiled jurisdictions, particularly those with origins in the formerly communist-controlled nations of eastern European. The recent collapse of communism has not resulted in any rapproachment between the exile-jurisdictions and their mother churches…….yet. With the Moscow Patriarchate’s vigorous pursuit of the return of Church property in foreign lands which has been administered since the Communist Revolution in Russia by The Synodal Church, the rift between the Synodal Church and the Moscow Patriarchate may never be healed.

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Russian Orthodox Church
through Saint Peter
Bishop Aleksij (Sergiy Vladimirovich Simanskij, 1877-1970) was consecrated 28 April 1913 by Patriarch Gregorios IV of The Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All The East in Russia as Bishop of Tichvin. In 1945 he was elected Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. Patriarch Aleksij, assisted by Metropolitan Nikolaj (Boris Dorofeevic Jaruevic), Archbishop Makarij (Sergej Konstantinovic Daev), Archbishop Jurij (Vjaeslav Michaijlovic Egorov), Bishop Aleksij (Viktor Aleksandrovic Konoplev) and Bishop Pimen (Sergij Izvekov), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:
Bishop John (Konstantin Nikolaevich Wendland, 1909-1989), Patriarchal Exarch of The Russian Orthodox Church in America, on 28 December 1958. On 3 August 1963 Bishop John became Metropolitan of The Russian Orthodox Church in America. He was recalled to Russia on 10 July 1967. Metropolitan John, assisted by Bishop Dositheus (Michail Ivanchenko of The Russian Orthodox Church in America), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Joseph (Joseph John Skureth, 01/08/1933 — ), as Exarch, The Western Orthodox Catholic Church in America, Exarchate of The Patriarchates of Moscow and Antioch (a Western Rite body within The Russian Orthodox Church in America) on 17 April 1966. Bishop Dosifej (Dositheus/Michail Ivanchenko) had ordained Bp. Joseph priest on 3 July 1963. Exarch Joseph is also affiliated with The Syrian-Antiochian Orthodox Church. Bishop Joseph, assisted by Archbishop Francisco de Jesus Pagtakhan (The Philippine Independent Catholic Church, Manila) and Bishop Lawrence Lee Shaver (The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Bertil (Nils Bertil Alexander Persson, 11/10/1941 — ) as Metropolitan Bishop of The Western Orthodox Catholic Church, The Mariavite Diocesan Province of Indiana and the U.S.A., and appointed him Metropolitan Archbishop of All Scandinavia on 28 February 1989). Archbishop Bertil, together with Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration, and assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators by Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl (Karl Julius Barwin, 10/16/1943 — ) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on The Feast of Saint Addai and Saint Mari (5 August) 1989, in The Chapel of The Holy Guardian Angels in Glendale, California.

Apostolic Succession from
The Russian Orthodox Church
through Saint Andrew
Bishop Makarij (Michael Nevskij, 1835 – 02/16/26) was consecrated in 1884 by Bishop Nikon of The Russian Orthodox Church. He was elected Archbishop in 1906 and served as Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomenskoe from 1912-1917. Bishop Makarij consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:
Bishop Evdokim (Basil Michaelovic Meschersky, 1869 – 1935) as Vicar Bishop, Diocese of Moscow, on 4 January 1904. Bishop Evdokim became the Archbishop of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1914. Archbishop Evdokim consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Aftimios (Abdullah Ofiesh, 1880 – 1966) as Bishop of Brooklyn on 13 May 1917. Bishop Aftimios became Archbishop of The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1923. Archbishop Aftimios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Sophronios (Sophronios Bishara, 1888 – 1940) as Bishop of Los Angeles on 26 May 1928, assisted by Elias, Metropolitan of Tyre and Sidon (The Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All The East) and Bishop Emmanuel (Rizkallah Abo-Hatab, The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church). Bishop Sophronios became Archbishop of The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1933. Archbishop Sophronios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Chrysostomos (John M. More-Moreno, + 1958), assisted by Archbishop-Exarch Benjamin (Ioann Athenasievich Fedchenkov of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church, in November of 1933. Bishop Chrysostomos became the Ruling Bishop of The Holy Eastern Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church in North America . Bishop Chrysostomos consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Nikolaus (Perry Nikolaus Cedarholm, 05/18/1890 – 08/06/1979) as Bishop of Brooklyn and Staten Island for The Apostolic Episcopal Church, assisted by Rev’d Fr. David Leondarides, The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, on 6 December 1949. Mar Nikolaus returned to Sweden in 1951 and was acknowledged as a Bishop by the Church of Sweden. He was enthroned as Bishop of Scandinavia for The Apostolic Episcopal Church in 1953 by Bishop Herman Philippus Abbinga of the Osterns Apostoliske Episkopale Kirke. In 1969 he assumed the position of Archbishop of The Apostolic Episcopal Church. Mar Nikolaus consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Alexander (Nils Bertil Alexander Persson, 11/10/1941 — ) as Titular Bishop of Smyrna on 12 December 1971. Mar Alexander succeeded Archbishop Nikolaus (Cedarholm) as Archbishop of Scandinavia of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 22 July 1977. He was enthroned as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church by Archbishop Wallace David de Ortega Maxey on 7 November 1986. Archbishop Persson also serves as the Missionary General for Scandinavia and All Europe for both the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Catholic Church, confirmed 15 June 1988; this is a member jurisdiction of The Anglican Communion) and the Igreja Católica Apostólica Brasiliera (Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, confirmed 14 June 1987). Archbishop Persson consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl (Karl Julius Barwin, 10/16/1943 — ) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on 5 August 1989, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude; Archbishop of Albuquerque and Dependencies, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

Apostolic Succession from
The Russian Orthodox Church
through Archbishop Theophanies Fan Stylian Noli
Bishop Makarij (Michael Nevskij, 1835 – 02/16/26) was consecrated in 1884 by Bishop Nikon of The Russian Orthodox Church. He was elected Archbishop in 1906 and served as Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomenskoe from 1912-1917. Archbishop Makarij (Macarius) consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Evdokim (Basil Michaelovic Meschersky, 1869 – 1935) as Vicar Bishop, Diocese of Moscow, on 4 January 1904. Bishop Evdokim became Archbishop of Alaska and North America for The Russian Orthodox Church in 1914. Archbishop Evdokim consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Aftimios (Abdullah Ofiesh, 1880 – 1966) as Bishop of Brooklyn on 13 May 1917, assisted by Bishop Stephen Alexander Dzubay of Pittsburgh and Bishop Alexander Alexandrovich Nemolovksy, Bishop of Canada. Bishop Aftimios became Archbishop of The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1923. In 1927, urged on by the chaotic conditions in Russia, the canonical Russian Patriarchial Bishops in the U.S.A. acted upon instructions and advice issued earlier by Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow, and emphasized by his successor, the Locum Tenens (Sergius), and Commissioned Bishop Aftimios to be Archbishop and to found and head an autocephalous American Orthodox Catholic Church. Archbishop Aftimios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Sophronios (Sophronios Bishara, 1888 – 1940) as Bishop of Los Angeles on 26 May 1928, assisted by Elias, Metropolitan of Tyre and Sidon (The Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All The East) and Bishop Emmanuel (Rizkallah Abo-Hatab, The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church). Bishop Sophronios became Archbishop of The Syrian Orthodox Mission of The North American Diocese of The Russian Orthodox Church in 1933. Archbishop Sophronios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Christopher Kontogiorgios (Contogeorge; 1894 – 8/30/50) on 10 February 1934 at St. John the Baptist Church in New York City, assisting Theophanies Fan Stylian Noli, Archbishop of The Albanian Orthodox Diocese in America (consecrated 4 December 1923 in St. George’s Cathedral in Korcha, Albania, by Metropolitan Kristofor Kissi [Bishop of Syradon] and Metropolitan Hierotheos [Andon Yahd, Bishop of Korcha & Plenipotentiary Exarch of the Patriarchate of Constantinople] as Metropolitan of Durazzo, Gora & Shpata; Primate & Exarch of All Illyria, of the Western Sea & of all Albania; 1924: President of Albania) as Metropolitan of Pentapoleos. Bishop Kontogiorgios was appointed Exarch of the Greek Orthodox Catholic Church under the Patriarchate of Alexandria in 1947. Exarch Kontogiorgios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Konstantin Jaroshevich in 1949, assisted by Archbishop Arsenios Saltas (consecrated 25 August 1934 by Abp. Kontogiorgios and Abp. Theophan Noli) and with the blessing and concurrence of Metropolitan Theophan Noli. In 1954 Abp. Jaroshevich was appointed Exarch of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa in the United States. Archbishop Jaroschevich consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Peter Andreas Zhurawetsky (12/07/01 – 1994) in Sts. Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Church of Springfield, Massachusetts, on 15 October 1950, assisting Patriarch Joseph Klimovich (of the American Holy Orthodox Catholic Eastern Church; Ptr. Klimovich was consecrated 14 October 1930 by Constantine Kuryllo of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church) together with Metropolitan Nicholas Bohatyretz (of the Ukrainians in the Orthodox Catholic Church in America; Met. Bohatyretz was consecrated 16 November 1913 by Bp. Paulo Louis Prota Guirleo Miraglia Gulotti, Bishop of Piacenza of the Italian National Episcopal Church), Metropolitan Joseph Zielonka (Polish Old Catholic Church of America and Europe) and Bishop Peter M. Williamowich (consecrated by Met. Fan Noli), as Suffragan Bishop, The Polish Old Catholic Church. In December 1960 Bp. Zhurawetsky succeeded Metropolitan Zielonka and immediately changed the name of this jurisdiction to Christ Catholic Church of the Americas and Europe, and taking the name of Peter II. In 1978, His Beatitude, Pope Nikolaus VII of Alexandria and All Africa wrote a letter recognizing Abp. Petros Zhurawetsky as a canonical Orthodox bishop. Patriarch Peter II consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Robert Gerald John Schulyer Zeiger (01/01/29 – 1998) in the Russian Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity and St. Olga, New Brunswick, New Jersey, on 1 July 1961, assisted by Primate Hubert Augustus Rogers, Bishop Julian Lester Smith, and Bishop James Hubert Rogers (all of The North American Old Roman Catholic Church) as Bishop for The Orthodox Catholic Patriarchate of America. He later left Ptr. Zhurawetsky’s jurisdiction in 1961 and founded the American Orthodox Catholic Church. In 1964 he resigned as Primate of that jurisdiction while remaining Archbishop Metropolitan of Denver. On 10 August 1976, Abp. Zeiger was consecrated at St. Paul’s Monastery, La Porte, Indiana, by Abp/Primate Joseph John Skureth (Western Orthodox Catholic Church) assisted by Bishop Joseph Gabriel Sokolowski, O.S.B. (Abbot General, St. Paul’s Monastery, La Porte, Indiana; consecrated 16 March 1970 by Abp. Joseph John Skureth & Bp. Frank Blevins). Abp. Zeiger consecrated sub conditione to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Andre Leon Zotique Barbeau (11/22/12 – 2/14/94) on 8 August 1976, assisted by Bishop Gordon Albert Da Costa (Anglican Church of the Americas; consecrated 19 June 1971 by Bp. Benjamin C. Eckardt of the Free Protestant Episcopal Church, assisted by Bp. Charles Kennedy Samuel Steward Moffat and Bp. Albert J. Fuge). He was earlier consecrated on 14 May 1968 at the Pro-Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Mirabel, Quebec, Canada, by Bp. Charles Brearley (Old Holy Catholic Church; consecrated 16 June 1954 by Marziano II, Basileus of Constantinople and of All the Christian Orient {Prince de Deols, Alessandro Licastro de la Chastre Grimaldi-Lascaris}, claimant to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire of the Orient as the 269th Emperor) and later on 26 July 1973 by Bishop Garry Robert Armstrong (Liberal Catholic Church International; consecrated 8 October 1972 by Bp. William Henry Daw of the Liberal Catholic Church International). He was further consecrated sub conditione on 19 August 1976 by Abp. Josef Maria Thiesen (Alt Roemisch Katholische Kirche in Germany; consecrated 17 April 1949 by Bp. Aloysius Stumpfl) and on 12/12/76 s.c. at the Cite de Marie, Mirabel, Quebec, Canada by Bp. George Bellemare (Eglise Universelle de la Nouvelle Alliance; consecrated 7 July 1975 by Bp. Roger Caro, assisted by Bp. Maurice Auberger and Bp. Patrick LeBar). Patriarch Barbeau consecrated sub conditione to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Leonard J. Curreri (07/27/46 – ) on 30 July 1977 at Mirabel, Quebec, Canada, assisted by Archbishop Rainer Laufer (Old Holy Catholic Church of Canada; Abp. Laufer was consecrated 18 November 1975 by: Bp. Charles Brearley of The Old Holy Catholic Church; Abp. Andre LeTellier, Titular Archbishop of Hippo and Archbishop Coadjutor of Montreal, Canada, Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada; and Bp. Jean-Marie Breault, Titular Bishop of Bethlehem and Auxiliary Bishop of Montreal, Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada), as Primate of The Tridentine Catholic Church. Abp. Curreri was first consecrated at Holy Cross Polish Catholic Church, New York City, on 23 April 1977 by Bp. Francis Joseph Ryan (Ecumenical Orthodox Catholic Church–Autocephalous; Bp. Ryan was consecrated in 1965 by Ptr. Udladyslau Ryzy-Ryski), assisted by Bp. Holmes Bennett Dayhoff (Tridentine Catholic Church) and Bp. John Basilo (American Orthodox Catholic Church; Bp. Basilo was consecrated by Walter Myron Propheta). Archbishop Curreri consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Peter Paul Brennan (1941 – ) on 10 June 1978 at Our Lady Queen of Heaven Church, Long Island, New York, assisting Bishop Richard Thomas McFarland (African Orthodox Church). He was consecrated sub conditione on 4 October 1979 by Archbishop Leonard J. Curreri (Tridentine Catholic Church), assisted by Archbishop Peter James G. Grazeloa (American National Catholic Church) and Bp. Holmes Bennett Dayhoff. In 1984 Abp. Brennan became head of the Ecumenical Catholic Diocese of the Americas based in West Hempstead, New York. Abp. Brennan consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Howard D. van Orden (1938 – ) on 14 October 1984, assisting Bp. Patrick J. Callahan (Old Roman Catholic Church–Utrecht Succession; Bp. Callahan was consecrated on 17 April 1984 by Abp. Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield and Abp. Paul G. W. Schultz) as Bishop of The Western Rite Orthodox Catholic Church of Jesus in St. Stephen’s Orthodox Catholic Church of Savannah, Georgia. Bishop van Orden consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl Julius Barwin (10/16/43 – ) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on The Feast of Saint Addai and Saint Mari (5 August) 1989 in The Chapel of The Holy Guardian Angels in Glendale, California, assisting Archbishop Bertil Persson (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), together with Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), and Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Eric T. Ong Veloso (Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Russian Orthodox Church
through Bishop Joseph A. Zuk
Joseph A. Zuk (? – 2/23/34) was consecrated on 7 February 1932 by Bp. Aftimios (Abdullah Ofiesh; Holy Eastern Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church in North America), assisted by Bp. Sophronios Bishara (Bishop of Los Angeles) as Assistant Bishop of The Holy Eastern Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church in North America with special oversight over The Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America. The ecclesiastical jurisdiction of these bishops (Ofiesh, Bishara & Zuk) is believed by many to be the sole canonical successor of The Russian Orthodox jurisdiction established for North America by way of Alaska in 1763 under Canon Law (Council of Chalcedon, 453 A.D.); thus this jurisdiction would be the only lawful (i.e., canonical) Orthodox jurisdiction in the U.S.A. Bishop Zuk consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

William Albert Nichols (12/4/1867 – 2/6/1947) on 27 September 1932, together with Bp. Sophronios Bishara, assisting Abp. Aftimios (Abdullah Ofiesh). Bishop Nichols took the ecclesiastical name of Ignatius. Against canon law and Church tradition, Bp. Ignatius (Nichols) married in June of 1933, for which he was formally removed from Office by Bp. Bishara. Upon the death of both Bp. Bishara and Bp. Zuk in 1934, Bp. Nichols assumed leadership of part of The Holy Eastern Orthodox and Apostolic Church in North America, officially incorporating it in the State of New York on 16 March 1936 under the name: The Holy Orthodox Church in America. This newly incorporated jurisdiction also included the former Anglican Universal Church of Christ in the United States of America (Chaldean), which allowed married bishops and was headed by Abp. George Winslow Plummer. Ignatius, Archbishop of Washington, D.C., consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

George Winslow Plummer (8/25/1876 – 1/23/1944) on 8 May 1934, assisted by Bishop Ambrosius (Maitland Raines of The Russian Orthodox Church; consecrated by Bp. Alexander Vvedensky) and took the ecclesiastical name of Mar Georgius. Mar Georgius consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Stanislaus de Witow (born Stanislaus Witowski; 2/9/1890 – 4/1969) on 29 November 1936, assisted by Abp. Ignatius (William Albert Nichols) and Bishop Irenaeus (Henry van Arsdale Parsell; consecrated 19 September 1920 by Bp Manuel Ferrando of the Reformed Episcopal Church assisted by Mar Georgius/Plummer) and took the ecclesiastical name Theodotus. Bp. Theodotus became head of The Holy Orthodox Church in America on 14 April 1951 succeeding Abp/Primate Roy C. Toombs (who had succeeded Mar Georgius on 23 January 1944). Abp. Theodotus consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Walter Myron Propheta (1912 – 10/8/1972) in Springfield, Massachusetts, on 3 October 1964, assisting Ptr. Joachim Souris of the True Orthodox Church of Greece (consecrated 2 June 1951 by Ptr. Joseph Klimovicz of the American Holy Orthodox Catholic Eastern Church, assisted by Ptr. Peter A. Zhurawetsky, Bp. Jozef Zielonka, and Bp. Clement I {John Cyril Sherwood}). On 30 March1965 he was elevated to Archbishop by Abp. Theodotus and Bishop Theoklitus Kantaris (Bishop of the Greek Orthodox Diocese of New York , consecrated by Makarios III, Archbishop/Primate of Cyprus), and took the ecclesiastical name of Patriarch Woldymyr I. Ptr. Woldymyr I consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

John Arthur Christian (Chiasson; born: John Christofer Saison; ? – 12/25/1984) on 31 July 1966, assisted by Abp. Theodotus (Stanislaus De Witow). He was elected to succeed Ptr. Woldymyr I at a Synod of The American Orthodox Catholic Church on 18 November 1972, taking the ecclesiastical name of Christian I. Ptr. Christian I consecrated sub conditione to the Sacred Episcopate:

Harold James Donovan (? – 3/18/1996) in Chicago, Illinois, on 4 July 1982, at the request of the Holy Synod of The Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church in the Philippines, taking the ecclesiastical name of Mar Aftimios II. He had been previously consecrated on 16 March 1980 as Missionary Bishop for this jurisdiction by Bp. Tirso Cinco Noble, assisted by Bp. Miguel Pestano Borja, Bp. Joel T. Borja, and Bp. Urbano A. Blanco (all Bishops within The Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church in the Philippines). In co-operation with Ptr. Christian I, Mar Aftimios II created an Exarchy in January 1983 of the Philippine Church later known as: The American Orthodox Church. Mar Aftimios II was consecrated sub conditione on 19 January 1987 by Bishop-Primate Forest Ernest Barber of the Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church in the Philippines (a part of the Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira) assisted by Metropolitan Mark (Senen C. Bordeos) of the Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church in the Philippines, based in Los Banos. Mar Aftimios II consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Eric Tan Ong Veloso on 12 March 1989 in The Holy Guardian Angels Chapel, Glendale, California, assisted by Abp. Paul G. W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas). Bp. Veloso had been previously consecrated on 30 October 1988 in Our Mother of Perpetual Help Orthodox Catholic Church of Los Angeles, California, by Abp. Howard D. van Orden, assisted by Bp. Jack London Mette (of the Catholic Apostolic Church in North America/Patriarchate of Brazil; consecrated by: Abp. de Ortega Maxey; Bp. Raymond Eugene Hefner; Ptr. Francis Jerome Joachim; Bp. Charles David Luther) and Bp. Carroll T. Lowery, for the Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines, taking the ecclesiastical name of Mar Petros. Mar Petros consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl Julius Barwin (10/16/1943 – ) in The Holy Guardian Angels Chapel, Glendale, California, on 5 August 1989, as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, assisting Archbishop Nils Bertil Alexander Persson (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), together with Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude; Archbishop of Albuquerque and Dependencies, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

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The Apostolic Succession
from
The Syrian Patriarchate of Antioch
and All The East
During the centuries Syria was governed by Rome/Constantinople, Antioch came to rank among one of the greatest cities of the empire in prestige, luxury, culture, law, medicine, art, literature, philosophy, and religion. By the middle of the 5th century, paganism had died out and monasticism was flourishing. Anti-imperial, nationalist politics, however, soon came to find expression in the Monophysite controversies, which politically weakened both Syria and Constantinople. When the Patriarch of Antioch, Severus (Sawiriyus I), patriotically embraced the Monophysite movement in A.D. 518, the Church of Syria split. The faction loyal to imperial government elected Bulus I as their new Patriarch and forced Ptr. Severus into exile at Alexandria. (The Faithful in the Patriarchates of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch who continued to recognize Papal and Imperial authority came to be called Melkites–after the Greek word for “king”. For a rehearsal of The Evangelical Catholic Church’s Apostolic Lines from this group, see the section The Melkite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch and All The East.

In A.D. 542, during the fourth year of Patriarch Severus’ Monophysite successor (Sergius, Sirjiyus), Fr. Ya’qub al-Barda’i (Jacob Baradaeus) began a 36-year missionary journey throughout the Near East on behalf of Monophysitism and ordaining thousands of priests. His efforts solidified his Church’s support among the common people and left such a positive and lasting impression that the Church for which he so arduously ministered is still fondly termed “Jacobite”.

Syria was absorbed into the Muslim world at the beginning of the seventh century. The Jacobite Church flourished for many centuries, enjoying better treatment under the Muslims than under Constantinople. Since A.D. 1313, however, the Church has experienced a long decline and many factional splits.

Beginning with Patriarch Ignatius V (A.D. 1313), the Syrian prelate of Antioch has taken the name Ignatius as his religious name, in honor of St. Ignatius (the third Patriarch of Antioch), to which is added a second name and numeral. The head of this Syrian Church has the title: Patriarch of Antioch and of All the Domain of the Apostolic Throne.

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Syrian Patriarchate of Antioch
and All the Domains of the Apostolic Throne

Moran Mar Ignatius Yacob II (Ighnatiyus Ya’qub II), Patriarch of Antioch and All The East, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Joseph Mar Dionysios V (Joseph Pulikottil, 1832 – 7/11/1909), as Metropolitan of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church on 12 February 1865 in Omeed (Deyarbekir), Turkey. He took the ecclesiastical name of Joseph Mar Dionysios V. Mar Dionysios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Julius I (Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvarez, 1837-1923), in the chapel of the Syrian seminary in Kottayam as Archbishop of Ceylon, Goa and India on 29 July 1889, in accordance with the Patriarchal Bull of Ignatius Peter III (IV) of January 1889, assisted by Paulose Mar Athanasius (Paulose Kadavil Kooran), Paulose Mar Ivanios (Paulose Murimatton), and Geevarghese Mar Gregorios (Geevarghese Pallathitta Chaturuthil), all Bishops of The Malankar Orthodox Syrian Church. He took the ecclesiastical name of Mar Julius I. Mar Julius consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Timotheus I (Joseph Rene Vilatte, 1/24/1854 – 7/8/1929), at the Church of Notre Dame de Bonne-Mort in Ceylon (near Sri Lanka) as Archbishop-Exarch of North America for The American Catholic Church on 29 May 1892, assisted by Metropolitan Archbishop Paulose Mar Athanasius (Paulose Kadavil Kooran) and Metropolitan Archbishop Geevarghese Mar Gregorios (Geevarghese Pallathitta Chaturuthil), Bishops of The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, in accordance with the Patriarchal Bull of Moran Mor Ignatius Peter III dated 29 December 1891 at Mardin. Mar Timotheus I consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Francis (John Barwell Walker, aka Edmund Basile Walker-Baxter, 10/25/1881 – 4/2/1963) on 1 June 1923, taking the ecclesiastical nameFrancis. He succeeded Mar Timotheus (Vilatte) on 25 June 1923 as Grand Master of The Order of The Crown of Thorns, taking the title of Prince Edmond de San Luigi, Edmond I. On 1 January 1946 he was consecrated by Antoine Joseph Aneed (Byzantine Universal {Catholic} and Orthodox Church of the Americas), assisted by Bishop Henry Joseph Kleefisch and Bishop Charles H. Hampton, and assigned as Titular Bishop of Caesarea. Mar Francis consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate:

Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield (7/3/1912 – ?), for the Byzantine Universal (Catholic) and Orthodox Church of the Americas sub conditione on 24 August 1961. Archbishop Emile, Iglesia Catolica Apostolica Mexicana, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl (Karl Julius Barwin, 1943–) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on 5 August 1989, assisting Archbishop Bertil Persson (Primate, The Apostolic Episcopal Church; Missionary-General for Scandinavia and all Europe of both the Iglesia Filipina Independiente [a member Church of The Anglican Communion] and the Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasiliera), together with Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude; Archbishop of Albuquerque and Dependencies, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Syrian Patriarchate of Antioch
(The Malankara Syrian Succession)
Moran Mar Ignatius Yacob II (Ighnatiyus Ya’qub II), Patriarch of Antioch and All The East, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Joseph Mar Dionysios V (Joseph Pulikottil, 1832 – 7/11/1909), as Metropolitan of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church on 12 February 1865 in Omeed (Deyarbekir), Turkey. He took the ecclesiastical name of Joseph Mar Dionysios V. Mar Dionysios consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Julius I (Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvarez, 1837-1923), in the chapel of the Syrian seminary in Kottayam as Archbishop of Ceylon, Goa and India on 29 July 1889, in accordance with the Patriarchal Bull of Ignatius Peter III (IV) of January 1889, assisted by Paulose Mar Athanasius (Paulose Kadavil Kooran), Paulose Mar Ivanios (Paulose Murimatton), and Geevarghese Mar Gregorios (Geevarghese Pallathitta Chaturuthil), all Bishops of The Malankar Orthodox Syrian Church. He took the ecclesiastical name of Mar Julius I. Mar Julius consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Timotheus I (Joseph Rene Vilatte, 1/24/1854 – 7/8/1929), at the Church of Notre Dame de Bonne-Mort in Ceylon (near Sri Lanka) as Archbishop-Exarch of North America for The American Catholic Church on 29 May 1892, assisted by Metropolitan Archbishop Paulose Mar Athanasius (Paulose Kadavil Kooran) and Metropolitan Archbishop Geevarghese Mar Gregorios (Geevarghese Pallathitta Chaturuthil), Bishops of The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, in accordance with the Patriarchal Bull of Moran Mor Ignatius Peter III dated 29 December 1891 at Mardin. Mar Timotheus I consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Paul Miraglia Gulotti as Bishop of Piacenza for The Italian National Episcopal Church on 6 May 1900. Bp. Gulotti consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Julius Ernest Louis René Houssaye (Mar Julius), as Archbishop of the Catholic French Church (Gallican) on 4 December 1904. Mar Julius consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Louis Marie François Giraud as Patriarch of the Gallican Catholic Church and Archbishop of Almyra in Aire (near Geneva), Switzerland. Ptr. Louis Marie consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Jean Baptiste Bricaud (Tau Jean II) as Primate of the Église Catholique Gnostique (later, Église Gnostique Universelle) on 21 July 1913. Ptr. Bricaud consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Victor Alfred Blanchard (Tau Targelius), on 5 May 1918. Bp. Blanchard consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Robert Amadou (Tau Jacques) on 28 January 1945. Bp. Amadou consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Nils Bertil Alexander Persson on 17 September 1988 in Paris, France. Abp. Persson consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Karl Julius Barwin as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on 5 August 1989, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield (Primate of the Iglesia Ortodoxa Católica Apostólica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude; Archbishop of Albuquerque and Dependencies, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

The Apostolic Succession
from
The Melkite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch
and All The East
Melkite (or Melchite) is the name given by the Monophysites to those Christians in the Patriarchates of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch after The Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451 A.D. who continued to accept and recognize the Papal and Imperial authority of Rome. Although originally the term “Melkite” was applied to all of the Chalcedonian Orthodox jurisdictions, it later came to refer specifically to The Greek Catholic Church of Antioch.

During the Middle Ages, two factions gradually emerged within The Melkite Church of Antioch, one favoring continued contact with Rome and the other preferring complete autocephaly. Finally, in 1724 A.D., each faction elected its own Patriarch. One faction within the Synod elected Kirillus Tanas (an advocate of autonomy under the Pope) as the new Patriarch, another faction simultaneously elected Silfistrus (who favored autocephaly under the Ecumenical Patriarch) as Patriarch. Rome recognized Kirillus VI Tanas shortly after his election as The Patriarch of Antioch and all the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem. His jurisdiction includes all Greek Melkite uniates in the Near East and the Americas. He alternates his residence between the cities of Cairo and Beirut, spending six months in each.

The Patriarchs of this jurisdiction have been known for their erudition and learning, and have been native Syrians from the beginning of the split.

Apostolic Succession from
The Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch
and All The East
Cyrillos VIII Jeha (Petros Geha, 1840–1916), the Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch and all the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Athanasios (Melece Saouaya/Sawoya, 3/15/1870 — 4/6/1919) on 5 February 1905 in The Chapel of St Michael at Cairo, Egypt, as Metropolitan Archbishop of Beirut and Gebeil, Lebanon. Abp. Athanasios (Sawoya) consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Antoun Anid (Anthony Aneed, 2/27/1881 — 8/24/1970) on 9 October 1911 in New York as Assistant Bishop (although not recognized by Rome, this consecration was later recognized by Patriarch Kirillus IX Mughabghab of The Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch). On 1 January 1946 Bishop Aneed was enthroned as Patriarch of The Byzantine Universal (Catholic) and Orthodox Church of the Americas. Patriarch Aneed consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate:

Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield on 24 November 1964. Archbishop Rodriguez y Fairfield was installed as the Archbishop/Primate of the Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana on 13 September 1983. Archbishop Emile consecrated de novo to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl (Karl Julius Barwin, 1943–) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on 5 August 1989, assisting Archbishop Bertil Persson (Primate, The Apostolic Episcopal Church; Missionary-General for Scandinavia and all Europe of both the Iglesia Filipina Independiente [a member Church of The Anglican Communion] and the Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasiliera), together with Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude; Archbishop of Albuquerque and Dependencies, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch
and All The East
Cyrillos VIII Jeha (Petros Geha, 1840–1916), the Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch and all the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Athanasios (Melece Saouaya/Sawoya, 3/15/1870 — 4/6/1919) on 5 February 1905 in The Chapel of St Michael at Cairo, Egypt, as Metropolitan Archbishop of Beirut and Gebeil, Lebanon. Abp. Athanasios (Sawoya) consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Antoun Anid (Anthony Aneed, 2/27/1881 — 8/24/1970) on 9 October 1911 in New York as Assistant Bishop (although not recognized by Rome, this consecration was later recognized by Patriarch Kirillus IX Mughabghab of The Melkite-Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch). On 1 January 1946 Bishop Anid was enthroned as Patriarch of The Byzantine Universal (Catholic) and Orthodox Church of the Americas. Patriarch Anid, together with Primate Lowell Paul Wadle (The American Catholic Church), Bishop Henry Joseph Kleefisch (The Byzantine Universal Orthodox Church), and Bishop Charles H. Hampton (The Old Roman Catholic Church), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar David I (Wallace David de Ortega Maxey, 02/22/1902 – 03/12/1992) on 23 August 1945. He became the Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church in America on 7 July 1948 but later resigned from that office, not returning to The Apostolic Episcopal Church in America until the early 1970’s. Mar David, assisted by Primate Robert Ronald Ramm (The Apostolic Episcopal Catholic Church), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Nils Bertil Alexander Persson and enthroned him as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 7 November 1986. Abp. Persson succeeded Abp. Robert Ronald Ramm on 11 November 1986 as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Catholic Church. Archbishop Persson also serves as the Missionary General for Scandinavia and All Europe for both the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Catholic Church, confirmed 15 June 1988; this is a member jurisdiction of The Anglican Communion) and the Igreja Católica Apostólica Brasiliera (Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, confirmed 14 June 1987). Archbishop Persson consecrated de novo to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl J. Barwin as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on 5 August 1989, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude; Archbishop of Albuquerque and Dependencies, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

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The Apostolic Succession
from
The Church of Cyprus
The Church of Cyprus was founded, according to Tradition, by St. Barnabas (mentioned in The New Testament). In A.D. 431 She was recognized as autocephalous under an independent Archbishop.

During the Crusades, Cyprus was seized by Richard I, King of England. King Richard gave the island to Guy of Lusignan, titular King of Jerusalem, c. 1191 A.D., who placed the Orthodox Bishops of Cyprus under the Latin Archbishop of Nikosia. Finally, when Orthodox Archbishop Germanos died ( c. 1275 A.D.), The Church of Cyprus was not allowed to elect a new Primate. Venice took control of Cyprus in 1489 A.D., but still did not allow the election of a new Primate. The Ottoman Empire gained control of Cyprus in 1571 A.D. , at which time the Orthodox Faithful began instigating for a new Primate. In 1572 A.D., Turkey finally allowed the election of a new Archbishop of New Justiniana and All Cyprus. In 1821 A.D. they murdered the Archbishop (Kyprianos) and his three Bishops for aiding the Greek rebels on the mainland.

At the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1877-78), fearing Russian expansion, Turkey turned complete control of Cyprus over to the British for a rental of c. $500,000 a year (with Turkey retaining nominal title to the island). In the 20th century, Cyprus has been continuously plagued with fighting: between the Greek and the Turkish populations, between the British administration and those seeking union with Greece and those seeking total independence. The Archepiscopal throne was vacant several times during this period (e.g., 1900-1909, 1933-1947).

The Primate of The Church of Cyprus bears the title Archbishop of New Justiniana and All Cyprus and resides in Nikosia.

 

Apostolic Succession
from
The Church of Cyprus
Makarios II, Archbishop of New Justiniana and All Cyprus, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Makarios III (Mikhail Christodolou Mouskos Kykkotis, 8/13/13–8/3/77) on 13 June 1948. Bishop Kykkotis was elected Primate of Cyprus in 1950. Archbishop Makarios III consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Theoklitos Kantaris as Bishop of Salamis, Cyprus. Bishop Kantaris consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Wolodymyr I (Walter Myron Propheta, 1912–8/10/72) on 30 March 1965 as Archbishop of the American Orthodox Catholic Church with the title of Patriarch Wolodymyr I, assisted by Abp. Theodotus (Stanislaus de Witow). (Bishop Propheta was first consecrated on 3 October 1964 by Patriarch Joachim Souris of the True Orthodox Church of Greece, assisted by Abp. Theodotus. Some view the 1965 elevation as not a consecration to the Office of Archbishop but merely an installation into that Office.) Patriarch Wolodymyr I consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate:

Homer Ferdinand Roebke on 4 March 1967 as Archbishop for The American Orthodox Catholic Church. Archbishop Roebke consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate:

Paul Christian G. W. Schultz (4/10/31–9/13/95) on 7 May 1975. Archbishop Schultz consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Karl J. Barwin (10/16/43–) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on The Feast of Saint Addai and Saint Mari (5 August) 1989, in The Chapel of The Holy Guardian Angels in Glendale, California, assisting Archbishop Bertil Persson (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Archbishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Bishop Eric T. Ong Veloso (Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

(Return)

The Apostolic Succession
from
Chiesa Cattolica in Italia
&
Igreja Catolica no Brasil
Archbishop Carlos Duarte Costa, ordained a priest within The Church of Rome on 1 April 1911, was consecrated to be the Roman Diocesan Bishop of Botucatu, Brazil, on 8 December 1924. His public statements on the treatment of the poor in Brazil (by both the civil government and the Roman Church) resulted in his removal as Diocesan Bishop of Botucatu. Bishop Duarte Costa was subsequently named Titular Bishop of Maura by Pope Pius XII (Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, Vatican Secretary of State until 1939 under Pope Pius XI).

Archbishop Duarte Costa’s criticisms of the Vatican, particularly the policy toward Nazi Germany, were not well received. He was formerly separated from the Church of Rome on 6 July 1945 after his strong and repeated public denunciations of the Vatican Secretariat of State for granting Vatican Passports to some very high ranking Nazis.

Some of the most notorious Nazi war criminals (e.g., Adolf Eichmann and Dr. Josef Mengele, the “Angel of Death,”) escaped trial after World War II using Vatican Passports to flee to South America. The government of Brazil also came under the Bishop’s criticism for collaborating with the Vatican on these passports.

Bishop Duarte Costa espoused what would be considered today as a rather liberal position on divorce, challenged mandatory celibacy for clergy, and publicly condemned the perceived abuses of papal power (especially the concept of Papal Infallibility, which he considered misguided and false). He founded the autonomous Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira (ICAB) immediately upon his separation from The Church of Rome (6 July 1945) and remained Primate of this jurisdiction until his death in 1961.

Archbishop Luis Castillo Mendez was consecrated by Archbishop Duarte Costa on 3 May 1948. He succeed Abp. Duarte Costa as Primate and Patriarch of the National Catholic Apostolic Churches (Igreja Catolica Apostolica Nationales) in 1961.

In addition to the autonomous Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira (ICAB), there are sister jurisdictions in thirteen other countries in the Western Hemisphere, Europe, the Pacific and in Asia, including: Argentina (ICAA), Chile, Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, Spain, Germany, France, Portugal, Australia, the Philippines, Canada and the United States of America, with over 12 million members.

It may be of interest to consider Bishop Salomao Ferraz. He was a Roman priest who left that jurisdiction to join the new autocephalous Brazilian Church. He was consecrated to the office of bishop by Archbishop Carlos Duarte Costa for the Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira (ICAB) in 1945. In 1958 he was reconciled with the Church of Rome (during the pontificate of Pope Pius XII). The Vatican appointed him Titular Bishop of Eleuterna on 12 May 1963. Although married, Bishop Ferraz was later appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Rio de Janeiro by Pope John XXIII. Pope Paul VI appointed Bishop Ferraz to serve on a commission of the Second Vatican Council; he even addressed the Council Fathers.

This is mentioned only to point out that Bishop Ferraz was never re-consecrated by the Roman Church, not even conditionally (sub conditione)! He was also allowed to keep his wife while serving and functioning as a Bishop of The Church of Rome! Later, he was buried with the full honors accorded a Bishop of the Church of Rome. The Vatican, by accepting Bishop Ferraz without any re-consecration, affirmed de jure and de facto the sacramental validity of the Apostolic Succession received via Abp. Duarte Costa.

The Apostolic Succession
from
Chiesa Cattolica in Italia
&
Igreja Catolica no Brasil
Pope Benedictus XIV

(Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 19 March 1743:

Carlo della Torre Rezzoni
(Pope Clement XIII)
assisted by
Archbishop Scopio Borghese & Ignatius Reali
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 26 April 1767:

Cardinal Bernardinus Giraud
assisted by
Archbishop Marcus Antonius Conti & Bishop Iosefus Maria Carafa
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 23 February 1777:

Cardinal Alexander Matthaeus
assisted by
Bishop Geraldus Macioti & Bishop Franciscus Albertini
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 12 September 1819:

Cardinal Petrus Franciscus Galeffi
assisted by
Abp. Ioanne Franciscus Falzacappa & Abp. Iosephus della Porta Rodiani
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 8 December 1822:

Cardinal Iacobus Philippus Fransoni
assisted by
Patriarch Joseph Valerga of Jerusalem & Bishop Rudesindus Salvado
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 8 June 1851:

Cardinal Carolus Sacconi
assisted by
Archbishop Salvator Nobili Vitelleschi and
Archbishop Franciscus Xaverius Fridericus de Morode
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 30 June 1872:

Cardinal Eduard Howard
assisted by
Archbishop Alessandro Sanminiatelli Zabarella & Bishop Giulio Lenti
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 8 December 1882:

Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 26 October 1890:

Cardinal Joaquin Arcoverde de Albuquerque-Cavalcanti
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 June 1911:

Archbishop Sebastiao Leme da Silveira Cintra
assisted by
Dom Alberto Jose Goncalves & Dom Benedito Paulo Alves de Souza
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 8 December 1924:

Dom Carlos Duarte Costa
Patriarch, Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira (1945)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 3 May 1948:

Dom Luis Fernando Castillo Mendez
Patriarch, Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira (1961)
assisted by
Dom Melquiades Rosa Garcia & Dom Bartolomeus Sebastiao Vilela
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 30 January 1985:

Dom Forest Ernest Barber
Holy Orthodox Church in the Philippines
(Mission of the Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira)
assisted by
Abp. Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield & Abp. Paul G. W. Schultz
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 June 1987:

Dom Nils Bertil Alexander Persson
Archbishop of Scandinavia, Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira
assisted by
Abp. Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield, Abp. Paul G. W. Schultz,
Bishop Christopher Rogers, Bishop Carroll Lowery,
Exarch Howard D. van Orden, Archbishop Arthur Garrow,
Bishop Petros (Eric Veloso), Bishop Michael Marshal
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 5 August 1989:

Dom Karl Julius Barwin
Primate, The Evangelical Catholic Church
(Return)

The Apostolic Succession
from
The Church of England
&
The Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.
The Church of England was planted in North America in 1607, at the foundation of the Jamestown Colony. It achieved quasi-establishment in Maryland and Virginia, and was “tolerated” in the other colonies, with the exception of New England, where the few Anglicans living there were bitterly persecuted and harassed.

The foundation for control of the Church by the laity (congregational form of polity) was firmly laid at this time. The appointment of clergy to serve parishes was almost totally in the hands of the laity who refused to allow priests a title to the benefits of their office which appointment/installation would allow, but preferred to pay Chaplains whom they could “fire” at will. This resulted in the ranks of the clergy being filled with very unworthy men and reduced the priest to the position of being an hireling/employee of the laity, consequently resulting in the laity’s contempt.

As there were no resident bishops in North America, the Anglican parishes here were under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, who governed them by means of commissaries. The power of the laity was so strong, however, and the class of men willing to serve as hirelings rather than priests so inferior, that the spiritual state of Anglicanism in the American colonies was very weak.

At the close of The War of Independence, Episcopalians, as they were then commonly called, realized that The Church must have a national organization if it was to prosper and grow. The biggest obstacle to creating a National Church was the lack of a national hierarchy. In Connecticut, the former Congregational converts to Anglicanism considered a bishop to be of absolute necessity. The Connecticut clergy therefore elected the Rev’d Samuel Seabury as their Bishop and gave him the mandate to go abroad and obtain valid Apostolic Orders.

The Anglican Bishops in England could not by law consecrate any one who would not take the Oath of Allegiance to the Monarch of the Realm, however. It would have been impossible, therefore, for Bishop-elect Seabury to return to America if he had received consecration as a British subject who had sworn allegiance to the King of England. With the refusal of the English bishops to bestow episcopal consecration, Fr. Seabury proceeded to Scotland. After prolonged negotiations with the Nonjuring bishops of Scotland, he finally obtained their consent to confer Apostolic Succession upon him.

The Nonjuring Bishops of Scotland were the remnant of the Church which the Stuarts had endeavored to establish in Scotland but which had lost the protection of the State as well as all Church endowments by remaining supporters of James II. The average Scotsman considered them to be almost as obnoxious as Roman Catholics and certainly just as dangerous.

The Nonjuring Bishops of Scotland were extremely High Church. They abandoned the Calvinistic doctrine of the Holy Eucharist espoused in The 39 Articles of The Church of England and returned to the “Lutheran” doctrine of the 1549 Articles. They used Holy Chrism in Confirmation, were considered firm believers in the sacerdotal character of the Holy Priesthood, and adamant in the necessity of Apostolic Succession and Episcopal Ordination.

Dr. Seabury was consecrated by the Nonjuring Bishops on 14 November 1784. Immediately after his consecration to the office and work of Bishop, he signed a Concordat with the Nonjurors (on 15 Nov. 1784) agreeing to introduce the liturgical and doctrinal beliefs and practices of the Nonjurors into the Episcopal Church in Connecticut. He specifically promised to persuade the American Church to use the Prayer of Consecration taken largely unchanged by The Episcopal Church of Scotland from the 1549 Book of Common Prayer. Upon his return to Connecticut he organized and governed his Diocese according to the doctrine and practice of his Consecrators. The “children” were no longer allowed to rule and control The Church. Bishop Seabury governed and ruled the Episcopal Church in Connecticut according to Biblical and ancient canonical practices; the laity was excluded from all deliberations, ecclesiastical councils and control of ecclesiastical affairs. In effect, Bishop Seabury is the Father of the traditional High Church party within PECUSA, marked by evangelical piety united with high sacramental ideals.

In stark contrast to the understanding of The Church adopted by Bishop Seabury in Connecticut, a very non-Catholic and non-historic view of Church polity was adopted in New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Dr. William White, Rector of Christ Church, believed that the Episcopal Church must assent to and adopt the secular, non-Biblical principle of “representative government.” He was even willing to employ the practice of Presbyterian Ordination until such time as a valid Apostolic Succession could be obtained from The Church of England. Surprisingly, Presbyterian Ordination found little favor among the Faithful of Pennsylvania. Fortunately an Act was passed in the English Parliament allowing English bishops to confer the Episcopacy upon men not subject to the British Crown. Consequently, Dr. William White (Bishop-Elect of Pennsylvania) and Dr. Samuel Provoost (Bishop-Elect of New York) were consecrated at the hands of the 88th Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. John Moore, on Septuagesima Sunday, 4 February 1787.

Upon the return of Bishops White and Provoost to the United States, there were so many differences between the Connecticut Church and that of the Middle and Southern States, that a merger or union could not be immediately effected. When Dr. James Madison was elected to be Bishop of Virginia, he was forced to go to England to be consecrated since Bishop Provost of New York (perhaps the Father of what later came to be known as the Broad Church party within PECUSA) refused to act in conjunction with the Bishop of Connecticut. (Bishop White might be considered the Father of the Evangelical party within PECUSA, with its belief in the desirability — rather than the necessity — of Apostolic Succession and its desire to closely coöperate with all other churches of the Reformation.) The foundation for differing doctrines of The Church were already evident at this early time within The Protestant Episcopal Church. The union was finally cemented in 1792, when Dr. Thomas John Claggert was elected Bishop of Maryland. There were now three “valid” Anglican bishops in the U.S.A. (excluding Dr. Seabury). Bishop Provoost of New York therefore withdrew his objections to allowing Dr. Seabury to participate in Dr. Claggert’s consecration. Had Bishop Seabury not been invited to participate in the consecration of Dr. Claggert, the result would have been a schism between Connecticut and the other States.

The Apostolic Succession
from
The Church of England
&
The Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.

POPE St. NICHOLAS I
(consecrated in 858)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 864:

FORMOSUS
(Bishop of Porto; Pope 891)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 891:

St. PLEGMUND
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 909:

ALTHELM
(as Bishop of Wells; 914 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate 914:

WULFHELM
(as Bishop of Wells; 923 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 927:

ODO
(as Bishop of Ramsbury; 942 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 957:

St. DUNSTAN
(as Bishop of Worcester; 960 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 984:

St. AELPHEGE
(as Bishop of Winchester; 1005 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 990:

ELFRIC
(as Bishop of Ramsbury; 995 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1003:

WULFSTAN
(as Bishop of Worcester and York)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 13 November 1020:

ETHELNOTH
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1035:

EADSIGE
(as Bishop of St. Martin’s, Canterbury; 1038 Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 3 April 1043:

STIGAND
(as Bishop of Elmham; 1052 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1058:

SIWARD
(as Bishop of Rochester)
assisting
William, Bishop of London
and
Giso, Bishop of Wells (consecrated 15 April 1061 by Pope Nicholas II)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 29 September 1070

Bl. LANFRANC
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1070:

THOMAS
(as Archbishop of York)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 December 1094:

St. ANSELM
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 26 July 1108:

RICHARD de BELMEIS
(as Bishop of London)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 18 February 1123:

WILLIAM of CORBEUIL
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 November 1129:

HENRY of BLOIS
(as Bishop of Winchester)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 3 June 1162:

St. THOMAS BECKET
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 23 August 1164:

ROGER of GLOUCESTER
(as Bishop of Worcester)
assisting
Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of London
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 November 1176:

PETER de LEIA
(as Bishop of St. David’s, Wales)
assisting
Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury
John Cumin, Archbishop of Dublin
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 29 September 1185:

GILBERT GLANVILLE
(as Bishop of Rochester)
assisting
Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury
Bernard, Archbishop of Ragusa (consecrated 19 November 1189 by Pope Clement III)
Philip of Poictou, Bishop of Durham (consecrated 20 April 1197 by Pope Celestine III)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 23 May 1199:

WILLIAM de SAINTE MERE L’EGLISE
(as Bishop of London)
assisting
Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury (consecrated 17 June 1207 by Pope Innocent III)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 5 October 1214:

WALTER de GRAY
(as Bishop of Worcester; 1216 Archbishop of York)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 5 December 1249:

WALTER KIRKHAM
(as Bishop of Durham)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 February 1255:

HENRY
(as Bishop of Whithern)
assisting
William Wickwane, Archbishop of York (consecrated 17 September 1279 by Pope Nicholas III)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 9 January 1284:

ANTHONY BECK
(as Bishop of Durham; 1306 Patriarch of Jerusalem)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 September 1292:

JOHN of HALTON
(as Bishop of Carlisle)
assisting
Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 27 June 1322:

ROGER NORTHBOROUGH
(as Bishop of Lichfield)
assisting
Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 July 1330:

ROBERT WYVIL
(as Bishop of Salisbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 12 March 1340:

RALPH STRATFORD
(as Bishop of London)
assisting
John Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 May 1346:

WILLIAM EDENDON
(as Bishop of Winchester)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 20 March 1362:

SIMON SUDBURY
(as Bishop of London; 1375 Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 12 May 1370:

THOMAS BRENTINGHAM
(as Bishop of Exeter)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 5 January 1382:

ROBERT BRAYBROOKE
(as Bishop of London)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 3 February 1398:

ROGER WALDEN
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 July 1398:

HENRY BEAUFORT
(as Bishop of Lincoln; 1405 Bishop of Winchester)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 May 1435:

THOMAS BOURCHIER
(as Bishop of Worcester; 1443 Ely, 1454 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 31 January 1479:

JOHN MORTON
(as Bishop of Ely; 1486 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 21 May 1497:

RICHARD FITZJAMES
(as Bishop of Rochester; 1503 Chichester; 1506 London)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 25 September 1502:

WILLIAM WARHAM
(as Bishop of London; 1503 Cant)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 May 1521:

JOHN LONGLANDS
(as Bishop of Lincoln)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 30 March 1533:

THOMAS CRANMER
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in June 1536:

WILLIAM BARLOW
(as Bishop of St. David’s, Wales; 1549 Bath; 1559 Chichester)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 December 1559:

MATTHEW PARKER
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 21 December 1559:

EDMUND GRINDAL
(as Bishop of London; 1570 York; 1576 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 21 April 1577:

JOHN WHITGIFT
(as Bishop of Worcester; 1583 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 8 May 1597:

RICHARD BANCROFT
(as Bishop of London; 1604 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 3 December 1609:

GEORGE ABBOT
(as Bishop of Lichfield; 1610 London; 1611 Canterbury)
assisted by
Marc Anthonio de Dominis, (Dean of Windsor and
former Roman Abp. of Spolatro & Primate of Dalmatia)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 December 1617:

GEORGE MONTAIGNE
(as Bishop of Lincoln; 1621 London; 1628 Durham; 1628 York)
assisted by
John Howson (Bishop of Oxford)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 18 November 1621:

Bl. WILLIAM LAUD
(as Bishop of St. David’s, Wales; 1626 Bath; 1628 London; 1633 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 June 1638:

BRIAN DUPPA
(as Bishop of Chichester; 1641 Salisbury; 1660 Winchester)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 28 October 1660 (see note 5):

GILBERT SHELDON
(as Bishop of London; 1663 Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 6 December 1674:

HENRY COMPTON
(as Bishop of Oxford; 1675 London)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 27 January 1678:

WILLIAM SANCROFT
(as Archbishop of Canterbury)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 25 October 1685:

THOMAS WHITE
(as Bishop of Peterborough, who was deposed in 1690 as a non-juror)
Under Royal Warrant from the exiled King James II
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 24 February 1693:

GEORGE HICKES
(as Bishop of Thetford)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 24 February 1712:

JAMES GADDERAR
(consecrated without a See because of penal conditions; later Bp. of Aberdeen and Moray)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 June 1727:

THOMAS RATTRAY
(as Bishop of Dunkold)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate in 1741:

WILLIAM FALCONAR
(as Bishop of Ross and Caithness)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 21 September 1768:

ROBERT KILGOUR
(as Bishop of Aberdeen)
assisted by
Bishop Coadjutor John Skinner (Aberdeen) & Bishop Arthur Petrie (Ross & Caithness)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 November 1784:

SAMUEL SEABURY
(as Bishop of Connecticut)
assisted by
Bishop William White, Bishop Samuel Provoost and Bishop James Madison
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 September 1792:

THOMAS JOHN CLAGGETT
(as Bishop of Maryland)
assisted by
Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 May 1797:

EDWARD BASS
(as Bishop of Massachusetts)
assisted by
Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 18 October 1797:

ABRAHAM JARVIS
(as Bishop of Connecticut)
assisted by
Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 29 May 1811:

ALEXANDER VIETS GRISWOLD
(as Bishop of the Eastern Diocese)
assisted by
Bishop William White and Bishop Nathaniel Bowen
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 31 October 1832:

JOHN HENRY HOPKINS
(as Bishop of Vermont)
assisted by
Bishop Benjamin B. Smith and Bishop Lee Henry Washington
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 15 November 1866:

GEORGE DAVID CUMMINS
(as Assistant Bishop of Kentucky)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 December 1873:

CHARLES EDWARD CHENEY
(for the Reformed Episcopal Church)
assisted by
Bishop George David Cummins
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 24 February 1876:

WILLIAM RUFUS NICHOLSON
(Reformed Episcopal Church)
assisted by
Bishop Samuel Fallows
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 22 June 1879:

ALFRED SPENCER RICHARDSON
(Reformed Episcopal Church)
assisting
Bishop Charles Isaac Stevens (2nd Patriarch, The Ancient British Church)
Consecrated sub conditione to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 May 1890:

LEON CHECHEMIAN
(as Mar Leon, Abp. of Selsey; sometime Armenian Uniate Titular Bishop of Malatia)
assisted by
Bp. James Martin (Abp. of Caerleon-upon-Usk)
Bp. Frederick Boucher & Bp. George W. L. Maaers (Iglesia Española Reformada Episcopal)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 2 November 1897:

ANDREW CHARLES ALBERT McLAGEN
(as Titular Bishop of Claremont)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 June 1922:

HERBERT JAMES MONZANI HEARD
(as Mar Jacobus II, Archbishop of Selsey; 1930 Primate, Free Protestant Episcopal Church)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 13 June 1943:

WILLIAM BERNARD CROW
Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Wisdom
(as Mar Bernard, Bishop of Santa Sophia)
(17 October 1943: Mar Basilius Abdullah III, Sovereign Prince Patriarch of Antioch)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 10 April 1944:

HUGH GEORGE de WILLMOTT NEWMAN
(as Mar Georgius I, Metropolitan of Glastonbury and Catholicos of the West)
assisted by
Abp. John Sebastian Marlow Ward (Archbishop of Olivet)
Bishop Richard Kenneth Hurgon (Titular Bishop of Mere [Somerset])
Bishop John Syer (Mar John, Bishop of Verulam)
Bishop Charles Leslie Saul (Mar Leofric, Archbishop of Suthronia in the Eparchy of All the Britons)
Bishop Francis Ernest Langhelt (Mar Francis, Bishop of Minster)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 6 June 1946:

WALLACE DAVID de ORTEGA MAXEY
(as Mar David I, Patriarch of Malaga, Apostolic Primate of all the Iberians,
& Supreme Hierarch of the Catholicate of the West in the Americas)
assisted by
Abp. Robert Ronald Ramm (Archbishop-Primate, The Apostolic Episcopal Catholic Church)
Consecrated sub conditione to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 November 1986:

NILS BERTIL ALEXANDER PERSSON
(as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church)
assisted by
Archbishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield, Bishop Carroll T. Lowery,
Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow, Archbishop Paul G. W. Schultz,
Bishop Howard D. van Orden, Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso),
Bishop Christopher J. Rogers & Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 5 August 1989:

KARL JULIUS BARWIN
(Primate, The Evangelical Catholic Church)

+ + +
John Moore (1730 – 1805)
(Archbishop of Canterbury, 1783)
assisted by
William Markham (Abp. of York), Bp. Charles Moss & Bp. John Hinchliffe
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 4 February 1787:

William White (1748 – 1836)
(Presiding Bishop, PECUSA: 1789, 1795 – 1835)
assisted by
Bishop Henry Hobart, Bishop James Kemp,
Bishop John Croes & Bishop Nathaniel Brown
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 25 October 1827:

Henry Ustick Onderdonk (1789 – 1858)
(Bishop of Pennsylvania)
assisted by
Bishop George Washington Doane & Bishop Jackson Kemper
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 July 1836:

Samuel Allen McCoskry (1804 – 1886)
(First PECUSA Bishop of Michigan)
assisted by
Bishop George Thurston Bedell, Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple,
Bishop Joseph Cruikshank Talbot, Bishop Robert Harper Clarkson,
Bishop John Franklin Spalding & Bishop George de Normandie Gillespie
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 6 December 1875:

William Edward McLaren (1831 – 1905)
(Third PECUSA Bishop of Illinois)
assisted by
Bishop George F. Seymour & Bishop Cortlandt Whitehead
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 24 June 1898:

William Montgomery Brown (1855 – 1937)
(PECUSA Bishop of Arkansas; Auxiliary Bp, Old Catholic Church in America)
assisted by
Archbishop William Henry Francis Brothers,
Bishop Albert Jehan & Bishop Józef Zielonka
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 2 January 1927:

Wallace David de Ortega Maxey (1902 – 1992)
(Retired Primate, Apostolic Episcopal Church in America)
assisted by
Archbishop Robert R. Ramm
Consecrated sub conditione to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 November 1986:

Nils Bertil Alexander Persson (1941 – )
(Primate, The Apostolic Episcopal Church)
assisted by
Archbishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield, Bishop Carroll T. Lowery,
Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow, Archbishop Paul G. W. Schultz,
Bishop Howard D. van Orden, Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso),
Bishop Christopher J. Rogers & Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall)
Consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 5 August 1989:

Karl Julius Barwin (1943 – )
(Primate, The Evangelical Catholic Church)
(Return)

The Apostolic Succession
from
Iglesia Filipina Independiente

(The Philippine Independent Catholic Church)
With a membership well in excess of one million members, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente has long been considered one of the largest Catholic jurisdictions not under obedience to Rome.
Sometimes called the “Aglipayan” Church, this national Church is the daughter Church of The Roman Catholic Church of The Philippines rather than a result of the movement to restore Orthodoxy to the Occidental Church of Europe during the Middle Ages. Her history, however, is firmly linked to the history of Spain.
Almost four centuries ago the power of Spain overshadowed all other European nations in the Americas. In the same year that Cortes conquered Mexico, Magellan discovered the Philippines in the Pacific – which Spain governed, robbed, and oppressed for three hundred and seventy-five years (until she lost control on May 1, 1898, when the U.S. fleet, under Commadore George Dewey, sailed into the Bay of Manila and won a victory as complete and astonishing as that of Cortes in Mexico).

Spain’s misrule in her colonies (Magellan began his rule in The Philippines by decapitating the beloved native ruler) produced a chronic state of insurrection; one after another, her colonies slipped from her grasp (Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, The Argentine, Mexico, Louisiana, Florida, and the greater part of the East Indies). She ceded Louisiana to France in 1800, Florida to the United States in 1819, and a few years later Mexico achieved her independence. Yet Spain still had the rich islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico in the West Indies and The Philippines in the East Indies; but these were quickly lost after her humiliating defeat by the Americans.

Just as the Spanish colonial government had oppressed the Filipino people, so also the Church of Rome (thru the rule of the local parishes by the Friars) greatly oppressed the native population. When Commadore Dewey won The Battle of Manila and occupied the city, he had to set up an American defense force to protect the former Spanish colonial rulers (civil and religious) and allow them to leave the islands. The National Philippine Militia was at the gates of Manila and had vowed to kill all Spaniards. Commadore Dewey was later commended by most European powers for the honorable way in which he had handled this matter.

It was not that The Church of Rome and Her clergy, even the Friars, had worked in vain. The native population had been brought the hope of The Gospel, which survives today in the vigorous folk devotion in the villages and the equally vigorous intellectual life of the larger cities of The Philippines.

Never the less, the Spanish colonial system, which identified The Church of Rome with the official colonial government (State), had put into the hands of the religious a tempting power which bore seeds of abuse and corruption. By the nineteenth century, the Spanish Friars enjoyed such a suffocating monopoly on farmland that they became the main target of the revolutionary literature which finally united the Filipino people in armed rebellion in 1896.

Within the Church of Rome in The Philippines, the Filipino clergy agitated against the arbitrary power of the foreign Friars. They also suffered from what might be called “racial discrimination” in that native clergy always occupied second-rate positions, and none were ever elevated to the episcopal rank.

In 1872 three native priests were executed for taking an anti-friar stand, an act not forgotten by the native clergy.

But Commadore Dewey’s arrival in Manila Bay revived the stalemated native Filipino-Spanish hostilities. After the Battle of Manila and the occupation of Manila by Dewey, Father Gregorio Aglipay (of Illocos Norte) was appointed Vicar General of the Revolutionary Army by General Emilio Aguinaldo. In addition, the Spanish Bishop Jose Hevia Campomanes, a prisoner of the Filipino forces, named Fr. Aglipay the Ecclesiastical Governor of Nueva Segovia, a huge Episcopal See covering all of Northern Luzon.

The growing ranks of rebel native priests, now led by Fr. Aglipay, petitioned the Papal Nuncio for a native episcopacy. He promptly told them that “the Pope would never agree because . . . Filipinos were not capable of episcopacy.”

The same day the Filipino native clergy received the insulting dictum of the Papal Nuncio in 1901, they announced their withdrawal from The Church of Rome under the slogan “An Independent Church in an Independent Philippines.”

The fiery Don Isabelo de los Reyes, a journalist, folklorist and labor organizer who led the lay delegates of the native clergy (and whose son some fifty years later was to become the Obispo Maximo of the Independent Church) urged an independent Church be founded immediately.

After some days of deliberation, the native clergy proceeded to elect seventeen native clergy as bishops and Fr. Gregorio Aglipay as The Supreme Bishop (Obispo Maximo). Thus was born the Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente, which is also termed the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. At the time of its formation the language of the realm was Spanish. In the English language the Church is known as The Philippine Independent Catholic Church or The Independent Catholic Church of The Philippines.

Father Aglipay, who was now called Monsignor Aglipay by his followers, was not only a loyal patriot but also a priest in Holy Orders of The Church of Rome. Although he realized that, in Rome’s view, he could transmit to new priests valid presbyterial orders and thus establish a valid priesthood, he sought for a “regular” consecration to the episcopacy that would bring in line the Apostolic Succession of the ancient and truly Catholic Church.

He corresponded with the Old Catholics of Europe, the Episcopalians of the United States, and The Apostolic Episcopal Church of Bishop Wolfert Brooks of New York without success.

The native Church, however, grew rapidly, and was encouraged by the American presence in The Philippines. Governor-General William H. Taft was appointed and accepted the position of Honorary President of the Independent Church before he left for the United States in 1903.

The two million Filipinos who had joined Msgr. Aglipay in his revolt against The Church of Rome took possession of the buildings in which they had been worshipping for generations. Challenged by The Church of Rome in U.S. courts, all properties were taken away from the people and handed back to The Church of Rome.

Starting all over again, the Independientes nevertheless built Chapels and Churches throughout the country. Yet compared to The Church of Rome, they were a Church in poverty and could provide no Church-operated colleges or seminaries for their people.

Nationalism was the vitality that held the Philippine Independent Church together through many trials and setbacks. Religiously the average Aglipayan lost nothing and gained little, for although he gave up worship in the beautiful buildings of his forefathers, he continued to hear a generally unreformed Mass and enjoyed the close fellowship of a minority Church.

In addition, the clergy seemed more able to understand the problems of living because almost all of them were married. Except for the fact of a married clergy, not subject to the discipline of Roman obedience, the Church had changed little. It was still The One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church of Christ Jesus for the Filipino faithful.

Although controversialists said this independent Church would fail, some fifty years later it still had in excess of two million members, and the Government Census taken each decade (which also polls religious preference) consistently shows that one seventh of the Filipinos prefer membership in the Independent Church.

While no men of good will, Protestant or Catholic, would question the validity of the apostolate of The Independent Church, the question of the lack of a traceable Apostolic Succession (which was raised by Msgr. Aglipay himself) continued to be asked. The Protestant Episcopal Church in The United States of America provided the answer in 1948.

The Protestant Episcopal Church, looking back on its history, found that it had completely missed the mark when it refused to establish a vital episcopacy in Mexico in the late 1920’s. After an assignation attempt on the life of the Mexican President and his cabinet members (allegedly traced to the Roman Catholic prelates and clergy in Mexico), Presidente Plutarco Elias Calles vowed to establish a Mexican National Catholic Church separate from and independent of Rome.

The Protestant Episcopal Church in the USA turned down the Mexican request and Presidente Calles finally obtained the Apostolic Succession for the Mexican National Catholic Church from Msgr. Carmel Henry Carfora, Archbishop of Chicago of the Old Roman Catholic Church.

Although three Bishops were consecrated to initiate the Mexican hierarchy (Jose Joaquin Perez y Budar, Antonio Lopez Sierra and Dr. Macario Lopez Valdes), the “Nationalistas” (as they were called), failed to replace The Church of Rome in Mexico and today only one remnant parish in Mexico and the East Los Angeles parish of Bishop Emil F. Rodriquez y Fairfield remain. Unlike the Filipinos, the Mexicans demanded continued celibacy in their national independent Church and were unable to recruit new priests.

Near the turn of the nineteenth century, some Protestant Episcopal Bishops (such as Charles Chapman Grafton, who became Bishop of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin in 1888), espoused the so-called “Three Branch Theory” of the Church. The idea was that one branch was The Church of Rome, another branch was the Orthodox Church under Constantinople, and the third branch was The Church of England. Thus, it was thought, the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A. would eventually become the TRUE American Catholic Church; and in a time before The Church of Rome was firmly established in the United States, PECUSA had high hopes.

It was the echo of this Branch Theory of Bishop Grafton that prevented the PECUSA from acting in the case of Mexico, and thus lost to the non-papal Christians the whole country of Mexico which, having cast out The Church of Rome and Her clergy, might have brought into the country the enlightenment that PECUSA claimed was Hers. But they did nothing until it was too late to do anything. The ideal was one branch only per country, and this idea blinded PECUSA’s eyes at that time.

PECUSA did not again want to miss the opportunity for missionary advancement. When, after several years of correspondence, Isabelo de los Reyes, Jr., became the leader of the Philippine national Church, PECUSA set aside the Branch Theory for one of “side-by-side” jurisdictions in the same land.

On April 7, 1948, Isabela de los Reyes, Jr., and two other native bishops were consecrated to the Sacred Episcopacy by Bishop Norman S. Binstead of the PECUSA Missionary District of The Philippines, assisted by his suffragan (Bishop Robert F. Wilner) and the Rt. Rev’d Harry S. Kennedy (PECUSA Bishop of Honolulu).

The three newly consecrated Philippine prelates then consecrated all the other native Bishops and ordained all priests and deacons according to the PECUSA rite.

The Apostolic Succession obtained by the Philippine Independent Church was that of PECUSA – from The Church of England. A few years later, when European Old Catholics assisted in Filipino Episcopal consecrations, the Old Catholic Lines of the European Bishops were added.

For many years the Independents and the Philippine Episcopalians walked side by side in harmony. However, over the years, differences developed. The “High Church” versus the “Low Church” problems of the Episcopalians in the USA did not appear as such in The Philippines, the conflicting parties rather seemed to be grouped as Pro-Protestant (or Pro-PECUSA) and Pro-Catholic.

More recently groups have favored former President Ferdinand Marcos who, as an infant, was baptized into the Independent Church by Msgr. Gregorio Aglipay himself. President Marcos had helped finance the Aglipay National Shrine which served as the Cathedral of Bishop Manuel Lagasca. Even as President Marcos often favored the Independent Church until his conversion and political position as a Roman Catholic; so also many of the older “Pro-Catholic” Independent Bishops and clergy also supported Marcos when he was in office.

The Pro-Protestant groups of younger priests and bishops within the Independent Church often tried (and succeeded) to overshadow the “war horse” bishops and priests who had been with the Independent Church from Her founding. One example: On May 8, 1961, the Pro-Protestant party won enough support to force the Constitution and Canons of The Philippine Independent Church to be amended to read, concerning Holy Orders, that “No bishop shall maintain seminarians in his convent or within his diocese on the ground that there is an official seminary, St. Francis Theological Seminary, Quezon City, recognized by the Church, where provision is made for the education of those who have a vocation to the priesthood. It is absolutely prohibited that any bishop ordain men to the priesthood . . . without certification issued by the dean of the seminary …”

What this meant for The Independent Philippine Church is that, if a man graduated from Yale Divinity School or Union Theological Seminary or Concordia Theological Seminary or Harvard University (just to name a few schools from which that priests of the Los Angeles Diocese of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas have graduated), they would be unable to be ordained as priests in The Independent Church. Also, the many Roman Catholic priests who, after having married, wanted to work as priests within The Independent Church, would have to be refused.

The older bishops of The Church never obeyed this canon, which they said turned their postulants over to a PECUSA-controlled seminary and the heresies of modernism which trickled down from PECUSA even to the Philippines. Also, these Church Fathers did not approve of PECUSA’s sole control over the seminary and their postulants. These older Bishops refused to give up their diocesan training centers for clergy and continued the practice of accepting former Roman priests.

Msgr. Isabela de los Reyes, Jr., had been elected the Obispo Maximo (Supreme Bishop) in 1948, and continued to be re-elected every four years until his death. He was succeeded by Bishop Macario V. Ga, of the Diocese of Negros Oriental. Msgr. Ga has since been re-elected every four years. It is remarkable that many of the men who were with The Independent Catholic Church in The Philippines when She received Apostolic Succession from PECUSA are still serving and still in office.

The vision of formally extending The Philippine Independent Catholic Church to the United States was primarily carried to fulfillment through the efforts of Dr. Thomas Gore. Dr. Gore graduated from Nashotah House ( a PECUSA seminary in Wisconsin) in 1976 and was ordained a priest within PECUSA by the Rt. Rev’d Charles Bennison (Bishop of Western Michigan) in 1968. He continued his education and received the Doctor of Medicine degree from the Autonomous University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Licensed both in Texas and Mexico as a medical doctor, he currently practices psychiatry in Lubbock, Texas.

Fr. Gore was a representative when Bishop Pagtakhan of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church (assisted by Bp. Sergio Mondala and Bp. Lupe Rosete) consecrated Robert Kennaugh, Ogden Miller and C. Wayne Craig to the Sacred Episcopate for the continuing Anglican jurisdictions in the USA. Dr. Gore, however, desired a more direct link with the mainland Independent Church.

After visiting the Philippines and winning the approval of Obispo Maximo Macario Ga and Archbishop Pagtakhan, Dr. Gore was consecrated on April 20, 1986, by Abp. Pagtakhan, Bp. Bayani Mercado and Bp. F. Barber. Bishop Gore then caused the American diocese of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church to be incorporated in the State of Texas as the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas with Abp. Francisco Pagtakhan serving as President of the Diocese/Corporation. It was Bishop Gore’s hope that this new American jurisdiction could serve as a refuge for all traditional Episcopalians in the U.S.A. seeking valid sacraments, holy orders, and recognition by the International Catholic Community through its relation to the mainland Philippine Church — which is a full member in good standing of The Anglican Communion.

The Philippine Independent Catholic Church has been in existence in the USA for about ten years (as of this writing). The small candle that was lighted by Dr. Thomas Gore in Texas has burned brighter each year, enhanced by the rainbow beams of the Philippines. Known for more than a century as the “Jewel of the Orient” from a folk-lore tradition that a Pearl from the Holy Grail was taken to the Philippines, an old tale says that the Philippines will bring the “Light of Understanding” to the Orient and bless the whole Christian world with the advancement of The Gospel of Jesus Christ.

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente, led by men such as Obispo Maximo Ga, Archbishop Francisco Pagtakhan, Archbishop Bartolome Remigio, Bishop Armando de la Cruz, and Bishop Manuel Lagasca, have given to the United States the great tradition of a conservative Independent Catholic Church. Yet it is not their work alone, it is the work of God.

Apostolic Succession
from
The Philippine Independent Catholic Church

Robert Kilgour, Bishop of Aberdeen and Primus of The Episcopal Church of Scotland, assisted by Bishop Coadjutor John Skinner of Aberdeen and Bishop Arthur Petrie of Ross & Caithness, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 November 1784:
Dr. Samuel Seabury (11/30/1729 – 2/25/1796), as Bishop of Connecticut. Bishop Seabury graduated from Yale University in 1748 (B.A.; M.A., 1751) and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh (1752 – 1753). He was ordained a Deacon by Bishop Dr. John Thomas of Lincoln on 12/21/1753 and a priest by Bishop Dr. Richard Osbaldiston of Carlisle on 12/23/1753. In 1775, after a brief imprisonment in New Haven for being a British Loyalist, he fled to New York City (which remained loyal to the King) where he supported his family by practicing medicine and serving through the war as Chaplain of the King of England’s American Regiment, under commission of Sir Henry Clinton (14 February 1778); after the Revolutionary War, he received a pension from the King for the rest of his life. In 1777 Bishop Seabury received the Doctor of Divinity degree from the University of Oxford. On 18 November 1790 he was also made Bishop of Rhode Island. Bishop Seabury, assisted by Bishop William White of Pennsylvania, Bishop Samuel Provoost of New York and Bishop James Madison of Virginia, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 17 September 1792:
Dr. Thomas John Claggett (1742 – 1816) as Bishop of Maryland (and the first canonical Episcopal/Anglican Bishop consecrated on American soil) and installed at Trinity Church at the foot of Wall Street in New York City City. On 27 November 1800, as the U.S. Senate completed its move to permanent quarters in Washington, D.C., the Rt. Rev’d Thomas John Claggett was elected as that body’s third Chaplain. Bp. Claggett, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 7 May 1797:
Edward Bass (11/23/1726 – 9/10/1803) as Bishop of New Hampshire and Massachusetts in Philadelphia. He graduated from Harvard in 1744 and received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the University of Pennsylvania in 1789. He was ordained both Deacon and Priest by Bishop Dr. Sherlock of London in May 1752. With the death of Bp. Seabury, Bishop Bass was requested to assume responsibility and jurisdiction over the Churches in Rhode Island; he also was given jurisdiction over the Churches in New Hampshire about the same time. Throughout his entire episcopacy, he also continued to serve as Rector of St. Paul’s Church, Newburyport, Massachusetts. Bishop Bass, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 18 October 1797:
Abraham Jarvis (3/26/1770 – 1813) as the second Bishop of Connecticut, succeeding Bishop Samuel Seabury. Bishop Jarvis, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Samuel Provoost, consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 29 May 1811:

John Henry Hobart (9/14/1775 – 9/12/1830) as Assistant Bishop of New York (succeeding Bishop Benjamin Moore and becoming Diocesan in 1816). He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania and Princeton University (graduating in 1793). He was ordained a Deacon in 1798 and a Priest in 1801. As Bishop, he initiated mission work among the Oneida Indians, was one of the founders of the General Theological Seminary and a renewer of Geneva (now Hobart) College. Bishop Hobart, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop James Kemp (2nd Bishop of Maryland, consecrated in 1814), consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 25 October 1827:

Henry Ustick Onderdonk 3/16/1789 – 12/6/1858) in Christ Church, Philadelphia, as Assistant Bishop of Pennsylvania (becoming Diocesan in 1836 upon the death of Bishop William White). He graduated from Columbia University in 1805 and studied medicine in London and the University of Edinburgh (M.D.). He studied theology and was ordained Priest in Trinity Church, New York, on 11 April 1816 by Bishop John Henry Hobart. In 1827 he also received the degree of S.T.D. from Columbia University. Bishop Onderdonk, assisted by Bishop William White and Bishop Dr. Benjamin T. Onderdonk (Bishop of New York, consecrated in 1830), consecrated to The Sacred Episcopate on 14 January 1834:

Dr. James Hervey Otey (1/27/1800 – 4/23/1863) in Christ Church, Philadelphia, Penn., as the 1st Bishop of Tennessee and the 30th Bishop in the PECUSA Succession, with parishes in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida and Tennessee. He was ordained both Deacon and Priest in Warrenton, North Carolina, by Bishop John S. Ravenscroft. Together with Louisiana Bishop Leonidas Polk (with whom he earlier founded Columbia Institute, a school for girls), he laid the groundwork for The University of the South at Suwanee, Tennessee, and served as the university’s first Chancellor. Today a PECUSA parish on University Avenue in Suwanee bears the good Bishop’s name. Bishop Otey, assisted by Bishop Leonidas Polk (1st Bishop of Louisiana; previously 1st Bishop of Arkansas; consecrated in 1838) and Bishop Nicholas H. Cobbs (1st Bishop of Alabama, consecrated in 1844), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 24 February 1850:

Dr. William Mercer Green (5/2/1798 – 2/13/1887) in St. Andrew’s Episcopal Church, Jackson, Mississippi, as the 1st Bishop of Mississippi. He graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1818 (studying theology) and was ordained a Deacon on 29 April 1821 by Bishop Richard C. Moore of Virginia in Christ Church, Raleigh, North Carolina. He was ordained a Priest on 20 April 1822 by the same bishop in St. James’ Church, Wilmington, North Carolina. In 1845 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the University of Pennsylvania. He served as Fourth Chancellor of The University of the South at Suwanee, Tennessee, beginning in 1867. Bishop Green, assisted by Bishop Joseph W. B. Wilmer (2nd Bishop of Louisiana; consecrated in 1866) and Bishop John W. Beckwith (2nd Bishop of Georgia; consecrated in consecrated in 1868), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 17 January 1875:

William Forbes Adams (1/2/1833 – 1920) in St. Paul’s Church, New Orleans, as Missionary Bishop of New Mexico & Arizona, becoming the 2nd Bishop of Easton (Maryland) in 1887. He was ordained a Deacon on 15 December 1859 and a Priest in St. Andrew’s Church, Jackson, Mississippi, on 29 July 1861 by Bishop William Mercer Green. Bishop Adams, assisted by Bishop Alfred M. Randolph of Southern Virginia (consecrated in 1883) and Bishop Dr. William Paret of Maryland (consecrated on 1/8/1885), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on The Feast of St. Michael and All Angels (29 September), 1909:

John Gardner Murray (8/31/1857 – 10/3/29) as Coadjutor Bishop of Maryland, becoming Diocesan in 1911 (to 1929) and the first elected Presiding Bishop of PECUSA on 1 January 1926. Presiding Bishop John G. Murray, assisted by Bishop John McKim (1st Bishop of North Kwanto, consecrated in 1893) and Bishop Henry St. G. Tucker (consecrated in 1912 by Bp. John McKim, Bishop Norman Henry Tubbs of Rangoon in Burma and Bishop Arthur Lea of Kyushu, Japan) consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 3 December 1928:

Norman Spencer Binsted (1890 – 1961), as Missionary Bishop of Tohoku, The Central Philippines, for The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Bishop Binsted, acting for the Presiding Bishop of PECUSA (Henry Knox Sherril), assisted by Bishop Robert Franklin Wilner (Suffragan Bishop of the Missionary District of the Philippines) and Bishop Harry Sherbourne Kennedy (Bishop of the Missionary District of Honolulu, Hawaii), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 7 April 1948:

Isabelo de los Reyes, Jr (1900 – 1971) as Obispo Maximo of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (being elected to this office in 1946). Obispo Maximo de los Reyes, assisted by Bishop Manuel N. Aguilar and Bishop Alejandro Remollino (Iglesia Filipina Independiente) consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 22 September 1957:

Francisco de Jesus Pagtakhan (1916 – ) as Bishop of Zambales in Maria Clara Christ Church, Manila. Bishop Pagtakhan was elevated to the office of Archbishop of the Cagayan Valley and The Americas, and appointed Archbishop Secretary for Missions, Ecumenical Relations and Foreign Affairs on 8 May 1984. Archbishop Pagtakhan, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield (Primate, Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana) and Bishop Paul G. W. Schultz (Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate sub conditione on 15 June 1988:

Nils Bertil Alexander Persson (11/10/41 – ) as Missionary General for Scandinavia and All Europe for the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. Archbishop Persson, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude; Archbishop of Albuquerque and Dependencies, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration; and assisted in this consecration as Co-Consecrators by Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles; Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas; and Apostolic Administrator in the USA of The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate on 5 August 1989:

Karl Julius Barwin (10/16/1943 — ) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church.
The Apostolic Succession
from
The Old Roman Catholic Church of Utrecht
The Diocese of Utrecht, Holland, was founded in AD 722 by St. Willibrord. The right of the Chapter of Utrecht to elect the bishop of The Diocese was recognized in AD 1145. In AD 1520 the Bishop of Utrecht was given the right to adjudicate matters in his diocese without appeal or recourse to Rome. In AD 1559, when the war with France had ended, Philip II of Spain, the hereditary ruler of the Netherlands, persuaded the Pope to elevate The See of Utrecht to an archbishopric, with five new dioceses under it (Haarlem, Deventer, Groningen, Leeuwarden and Middelburg).

Having survived the Calvinist Reformation in Holland as an underground Church, the Dutch Roman Catholic faithful were suddenly subjected to the political ambitions and maneuverings of the Jesuits, who fought to have Rome declare The See of Utrecht a missionary district under their control. At first failing in this battle to gain control of The Church in Holland, the Jesuits adopted a new tactic in AD 1691 by accusing + Peter Codde, The Archbishop of Utrecht, of espousing the so-called heresy of Jansenism. Although the Archbishop was eventually proved innocent of heresy, Pope Innocent XII tried to appease the Jesuits by suspending and deposing him in AD 1705. No mention was made of any reason for the deposition. Even a Papal canonist, Hyacinth de Archangelis, issued a formal opinion that a Vicar-Apostolic with the rights of an Ordinary (as + Codde undoubtedly was) could not be arbitrarily deposed. Two Dutch Catholic Chapters (Utrecht and Haarlem) naturally decided not to recognize this irregular, if not illegal, act. The battle was over local autonomy in a collegial Church versus Papal supremacy.

When the Papacy appointed + Theodore de Cock as Pro-Vicar-Apostolic of The United Provinces, in the place of Archbishop Peter Codde (deposed), the Chapters of Utrecht and Haarlem further decided not to recognize his authority on the ground that The Patriarch of Rome had no canonical authority to deprive even a Vicar-Apostolic, much less an Archbishop, without trial and condemnation. At the same time the Calvinist government decided that it would prefer a Catholic Church controlled by Dutch Catholics to a Catholic Church controlled by Rome. The government, therefore, issued a decree forbidding + de Cock to exercise any jurisdiction over Roman Catholics in Holland. Later, after accusing the Dutch government of being bribed by the secular clergy loyal to The Archbishop (+ Codde), + de Cock was banished from Holland and fled to Rome. Rome countered by placing the Dutch Church under an Inhibition, prohibiting all Bishops from performing any episcopal acts in Holland.

At this point the battle between Utrecht and Rome was not doctrinal, but the results of Jesuit intrigue and their desire to firmly establish the Papacy as an absolute monarchy.

Had Archbishop Codde continued to exercise his authority as The Archbishop of Utrecht, while appealing his uncanonical suspension as Vicar-Apostolic (as Vicar-Apostolic he had diocesan jurisdiction wherever there was no Bishop or Chapter; metropolitan jurisdiction in the other dioceses), the course of Church history may well have seen the defeat of the Jesuit sponsored Ultramontane movement. Unfortunately, + Codde not only protested his suspension but also retired from the exercise of his office. His jurisdiction thus reverted to the Chapters and his people were left without episcopal protection and governance.

It was the position of the Chapter of Utrecht that:

Both the Province and Diocese of Utrecht, with all their ancient and canonical rights and privileges, still existed. (The Chapter of Utrecht was formally recognized on many occasions by Papal Nuncios even after this date.)

The Vicariate instituted by Archbishop Philip Rovenius on 9 June 1633 was the canonical reconstitution of the ancient Chapter of Utrecht and possessed all the rights of the Chapter, including the right to elect the Archbishop of Utrecht. (All nominations made hereafter by this Chapter were, in fact, accepted by Rome, including that of Archbishop Codde.)

Later archbishops, from + Vosmeer to + Codde, were not only Vicars-Apostolic of the Roman See, but also Archbishops of Utrecht, the true canonical successors of St. Willibrord.

On 25 May 1717, five doctors of the theological faculty of the University of Louvain publicly sided with the Archepiscopal See of Utrecht by stating that the Church of Utrecht had not been reduced to the status of a mere mission, that the Chapter of Utrecht had survived, and that the Vicariate established by + Rovenius was the ancient Chapter of Utrecht. Later, 102 doctors of theology at the University of Paris, together with the whole law faculty, publicly agreed with the doctors of Louvain. As a result of the support of the theology faculties of two French universities, three French Bishops (Soanen of Senez, Lorraine of Bayeux, and Caumartin of Blois) declared that they were ready to ordain priests for the Chapter of Utrecht, and actually did so.

Upon the death, in AD 1710, of + Peter Codde, the deposed Archbishop of Utrecht, the Cathedral Chapter (exercising its historically recognized right) elected a successor. No Bishop, however, could be found who would ignore the Pope’s Inhibition by consecrating the Archbishop-elect. The Church of Holland continued to send Her candidates for the priesthood out of the country for ordination by foreign Bishops; Her children, without a diocesan Ordinary, were left unconfirmed. At this point the Jesuits and Rome sought and anxiously anticipated the total capitulation of the autocephalous Dutch Church.

A turning point in the Dutch Church’s struggle with Rome came in AD 1719 when + Dominique Maria Varlet, former missionary priest in The Louisiana Territory in North America, stopped in Amsterdam for a few days on his way to his new post in Persia. A local Dutch priest, Father Jacob Krys, begged the new Bishop to confirm 604 orphans and other poor children as an act of charity, which he did. He then continued his journey to Persia, arriving at his residence at Schamake (now Shemakh near Baku in the Republic of Azerbaijan) on 9 October 1719. On 26 March 1720, the Bishop of Babylon was presented with a formal Notice of Suspension from his office, sent by the Bishop of Ispahan by order of the Congregation de Propaganda Fide, and delivered by a Jesuit priest (Fr. Bachou) because of the confirmations in Amsterdam. Like the late Archbishop Codde, Bishop Varlet elected not to remain in office while fighting the Papal action. After careful consideration and prayer, the good Bishop immediately left Persia and returned to Amsterdam, where he settled permanently.

The Chapter of Utrecht had meanwhile repeatedly attempted to get the Pope to allow the election and consecration of an archbishop; Pope Innocent XIII ignored their petitions. The Chapter next turned to the leading canon lawyers of the day. They were told that the Chapter had the canonical right to elect their archbishop and get him consecrated without the consent of the Pope (recent precedents in both France and Portugal supported this position). Nineteen doctors of the theological faculty of the Sorbonne (University of Paris), and others from Nantes, Rheims, Padua, and Louvain, gave their agreement to this position, as well as assuring the Chapter that in the case of necessity one bishop alone might preside at the consecration.

With the approval of the government, the Chapter met at The Hague on 27 April 1723 and, after a Mass of The Holy Spirit, elected, with all the canonical forms, Cornelius Steenoven to be Archbishop of Utrecht. Although Fr. Steenoven was elected as the candidate likely to be the least objectionable to Rome, the Pope refused to answer the Chapter’s request to permit his consecration. The Chapter finally begged the Bishop of Babylon to consecrate their candidate. He consented. The government also consented to this the first consecration of an Archbishop of Utrecht since the Reformation. Thus at 6:00am on Pentecost XX, 15 October 1724, Cornelius van Steenoven was consecrated in the presence of the whole Chapter by the Bishop of Babylon in Amsterdam to be the seventh Archbishop of Utrecht and canonical successor of St. Willibrord.

The Bishop of Babylon was called upon by The Chapter to consecrate four archbishops for the See of Utrecht before his death on 14 May 1742 at The Hague.

 

Apostolic Succession
from
The Old Catholic Church of Utrecht
through
Archbishop Paul G. W. Schultz
Cardinal Antonio Barberini, nephew of Pope Urban VIII, was consecrated in AD 1655 (by the order of Pope Alexander VII) by Monsignore Scannarola (Bishop of Sidonia), assisted by Monsignore Botini (Domestic Prelate of the Pope), and Monsignore Laurenzio Gavotti (Bishop of Ventimiglia), as Bishop of Frascati. In AD 1657 Bishop Barberini became Archbishop of Rheims; in AD 1661 he became Bishop of Palestrina. Cardinal Barberini consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Charles Maurice Le Tellier, Duke, son of the Grand Chancellor of France, as Co-Adjutor Bishop, on 12 November 1668 at The Church of The Sorbonne. He became the Archbishop of Rheims in AD 1669. Archbishop Le Tellier consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop James Benigne Bossuet, The Eagle of Meaux, as Bishop of Condom, on 21 September 1670, at The Church of the Cordeliers, Pontoise. He was translated to The See of Meaux by Pope Clement X in AD 1679. Bishop Bossuet consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop James Coydon de Matignon, son of the Count de Thorigny, Doyen of Lisieux and Abbe Commendataire de St. Victor at Marseilles, as Assistant Bishop of Condom in AD 1673, at the Church of The Carthusian Fathers, Paris. Bishop de Matignon, by order of Pope Clement XI, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Dominique Maria Varlet as Bishop of Ascalon in partibus and Co-Adjutor to the Bishop of Babylon, Persia, on 12 February 1719 in The Chapel attached to the House of the Fathers of Foreign Missions at Paris, assisted by the Co-Adjutor Bishop of Quebec and the Bishop of Claremont. Bishop Varlet consecrated four Archbishops of Utrecht; three died without consecrating successors. The continued existence of the autocephalous Old Roman Catholic Church of Holland was assured when Bishop Varlet consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Petrus Johannes Meindaerts, Archpriest of Leeuwarden and Dean of Friesland (who had been ordained a priest in Ireland by Bishop Fagan) as the tenth Archbishop of Utrecht on St. Luke’s Day, 18 October 1739. Archbishop Meindaerts consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Johannes van Stiphout as the fourth Bishop of Haarlem on 11 July 1745. Bishop Stiphout consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Walter Michael van Nieuwenhuisen as the eleventh Archbishop of Utrecht on Sexagesima Sunday, 7 February 1768, assisted by Bishop Bartholomaeus Johannes Byeveld (of Deventer). The new archbishop received letters of communion from bishops in Germany, France, Italy and Spain, who recognized that the claims to canonical jurisdiction by The Church of Holland were sound and her doctrine orthodox. Archbishop Nieuwenhuisen consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Adrian Johannes Broekman, President of the Amersfoort Seminary, on Pentecost II Sunday, 21 June 1778, as Bishop of Haarlem. Bishop Broekman consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Johannes Jacobus van Rhijn as the twelfth Archbishop of Utrecht on 5 July 1797, assisted by Bishop Nicholas Nellemans of Deventer. Archbishop van Rhijn consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Gisbertus de Jong as the fifth Bishop of Deventer on 7 November 1805, shortly after the formation of the Batavian Republic in Holland by Napoleon. Bishop de Jong consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Willibrord van Os as the thirteenth Archbishop of Utrecht on 24 April 1814. Archbishop van Os consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Johannes Bon as the seventh Bishop of Haarlem on 25 April 1819. Bishop Bon was the first Bishop of the autocephalous Dutch succession not to be excommunicated by Rome; in 1827 he was nominated by the King of Holland to the See of Bruges, without objection from Rome. One Roman Cardinal is reported to have said of this nomination: Dominus Bonus no potest esse pastor malus (It is not possible for Lord Good to be a bad pastor). Bishop Bon consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Johannes van Santen, parish priest of Schiedam, as fourteenth Archbishop of Utrecht on the Sunday within the Octave of St. Willibrord, 13 November 1825, in The Cathedral of St. Gertrude in Utrecht. The announcement of this consecration to The Pope is the first time that the Archbishop of Utrecht called himself the Pope’s brother (and not son). Archbishop van Santen consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Hermann Heykamp as seventh Bishop of Deventer on 17 July 1853. Bishop Heykamp consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Gaspardus Johannes Rinkel as the tenth Bishop of Haarlem and Bishop Josef Hubert Reinkens as the first Bishop of The Old Catholic Church in Germany (Bonn) on 11 August 1873 in the Church of St. Lawrence and St. Mary Magdalene at Rotterdam. This is the first time that the formal proofs of election were read during the Mass of Consecration instead of the Papal Mandate; it is also the first time that the new Bishops did not notify Rome of their consecrations. Bishop Rinkel consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Gerardus Gul, parish priest of Hilversum, as the seventeenth Archbishop of Utrecht, on 11 May 1892 in Hilversum, assisted by Bishop Cornelius Diependaal of Deventer and Bishop Reinkens of The Old Catholic Church in Germany. Archbishop Gul consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Henricus Johannes Theodorus van Vlijmen as the thirteenth Bishop of Haarlem in 1916, assisted by Bishop Edward Herzog of The Old Catholic Church in Switzerland. Bishop van Vlijmen consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Franciscus Kenninck, President of the Amersfoort Seminary, as the eighteenth Archbishop of Utrecht in 1920, assisted by Bishop Edward Herzog of The Old Catholic Church in Switzerland (Berne) and Bishop Georg Moog of The Old Catholic Church in Germany. Archbishop Kenninck consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Adolf Küry, Professor in the Old Catholic Theological Faculty at Berne, as the second Old Catholic Bishop in Berne (Switzerland), on 14 September 1924. Bishop Küry consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Erwin Kreuzer, parish priest at Freiburg-in-Breisgau, as fifth Old Catholic Bishop in Bonn (Germany), at Mannheim on 8 May 1935, assisted by Bishop Vlijmen (Haarlem) and Bishop Johannes Hermannus Berends (Deventer). Bishop Kreuzer consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Albert D. Bell as Bishop for the North American Old Roman Catholic Church in 1939. Bishop Bell consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Edgar Ramon Verostek as a Bishop of the North American Old Roman Catholic Church –Utrecht Succession, on 9 March 1940. Bishop Verostek consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Paul G. W. Schultz as a Bishop of The Order of Christian Renewal on 20 May 1978. Archbishop Schultz, Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in America and Archbishop of Los Angeles, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl Julius Barwin as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on The Feast of Saint Addai and Saint Mari (5 August) 1989, in The Chapel of The Holy Guardian Angels in Glendale, California, assisting Archbishop Bertil Persson (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Archbishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Bishop Eric T. Ong Veloso (Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Old Catholic Church of Utrecht
through
The Mariavite Catholic Church of Poland
Bishop Johann Michael Kowalski was consecrated in Utrecht, Holland, on 5 October 1909 by Archbishop Gerard Gul of Utrecht, Archbishop Arnold Harris Mathew (Archbishop of London, Old Catholic Church of England), Bishop Johannes Jacobus van Thiel and Bishop Nicolas Bartholomaeus Petrus Spit (Old Catholic Church of Holland), and Bishop Joseph Demmel (Bishop of Bonn, Old Catholic Church of Germany), as Bishop for the Polish Catholic Church of the Mariavites. Bishop Kowalski consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Marc Marie (Paul Fatome) on 4 September 1938 as Regionary Bishop for France. Bishop Marc Marie consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Paulus (Helmut Norbert Maas) on 6 October 1949 as Bishop of the Mariavite Catholic Church in Germany (Katholische Kirche der Mariaviten in Deutschland). Bishop Paulus consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Efrem Maria Mauro Fusi on 24 May 1953 as Bishop for The Mariavite Catholic Church in Italy (Chiesa Cattolica Mariavita). Bishop Fusi consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Clement Alfio Sgroi Marchese on 26 May 1954 as Bishop of Sicily for The Mariavite Catholic Church in Italy. Bishop Marchese consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Georgius (Hugh George de Willmott Newman) on 18 September 1954 as Patriarch of Glastonbury (and the 6th British Orthodox Patriarch). Mar Georgius consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Charles Dennis Boltwood on 6 July 1956 as Titular Bishop of Thorney and Auxiliary Bishop for London north of the Thames. Bishop Boltwood consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Emmett Neil Enochs on 31 August 1958 at Los Angeles, California, as Archbishop of California, Primate of the United States for the Free Protestant Episcopal Church and Titular Missionary Bishop in The Catholic Apostolic Church, assisted by Rev’d Frederick C. King, Ph.D., Rev’d Karla King, and Rev’d Marshall Ho’o. Archbishop Enochs consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Frederick Charles King on 19 May 1963 for the Old Roman Catholic Church. Bishop King consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Paul Christian G. W. Schultz on 18 May 1975, assisted by Bishop George A. Lyman (American Orthodox Catholic Church). Bishop Schultz consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl J. Barwinas Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on The Feast of Saint Addai and Saint Mari (5 August) 1989, in The Chapel of The Holy Guardian Angels in Glendale, California, assisting Archbishop Bertil Persson (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Archbishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Bishop Eric T. Ong Veloso (Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Old Catholic Church of Utrecht
through
Archbishop William Montgomery Brown
Archbishop Gerard Gul (Old Catholic Church of Utrecht), assisted by Bishop Johannes Jacobus van Thiel and Bishop Nicholas Bartholomaeus Petrus Spit (both with The Old Catholic Church of Utrecht) and Bishop Josef Demmel (Old Catholic Church in Germany), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop-Primate Arnold Harris Mathew on 28 April 1908 as Archbishop of London and Primate of the Old Catholic Church in England. Archbishop Mathew consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Rudolf Franziskus Eduard de Landas Berghes et de Rache on 29 June 1913 as Missionary Bishop for Scotland. In 1916 Prince de Landas Berghes became Archbishop-Primate of The National Catholic Church in North America. Archbishop de Landas Berghes et de Rache consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop William Henry Francis Brothers on 3 October 1916 for The Old Roman Catholic Church. In 1917 Bishop Brothers became Archbishop and Metropolitan of The Old Catholic Church in America. Archbishop Brothers consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop William Montgomery Brown on 24 June 1925, assisted by Bishop Jozef Zielonka (Polish Old Catholic Church of America) and Bishop Albert Jehan (Bishop of Chicago, the Old Catholic Church in America). Bishop Brown consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Wallace David de Ortega Maxey on 2 January 1927, assisted by Bishop Jozef Zielonka (Polish Old Catholic Church of America), Bishop Albert Jehan (Bishop of Chicago, the Old Catholic Church in America), and Archbishop William Henry Francis Brothers (Primate, the Old Catholic Church in America). Archbishop de Ortega Maxey consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Nils Bertil Alexander Persson as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 7 November 1986, assisted by Archbishop Robert Ronald Ramm (Apostolic Episcopal Catholic Church). Archbishop Persson also serves as the Missionary General for Scandinavia and All Europe for both the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Catholic Church, confirmed 15 June 1988; this is a member jurisdiction of The Anglican Communion) and the Igreja Católica Apostólica Brasiliera (Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, confirmed 14 June 1987). Archbishop Persson consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl J. Barwin as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on 5 August 1989, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Archbishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude; Archbishop of Albuquerque and Dependencies, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

 

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Old Catholic Church of Utrecht
through
Archbishop Carmel Henry Carfora
Archbishop Rudolf Franziskus Eduard de Landas Berghes et de Rache, consecrated on 29 June 1913 by Archbishop-Primate Arnold Harris Mathew (Old Catholic Church in England) as Missionary Bishop for Scotland, consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Carmel Henry Carfora in the Chapel of St. Dunstan’s Abbey in Waukegan, Illinois, assisted by Bishop William Henry Francis Brothers, on 4 October 1916 as Archbishop of Canada. Bishop Carfora consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Edwin Wallace Hunter, on 11 February 1924, assisted by Bishop Franciszek Viktor Maximillian Kanski (American Catholic Church) as Regionary Bishop for the U.S.A. and Canada for The North American Old Roman Catholic Church. Bishop Hunter consecrated s.c. to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Wallace David de Ortega Maxey on 24 May 1929, assisted by Bishop Samuel Gregory Lines (Apostolic Christian Church) and Bishop Francis John Barwell Walker (American Catholic Church). Archbishop de Ortega Maxey consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Archbishop Nils Bertil Alexander Persson as Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 7 November 1986, assisted by Archbishop Robert Ronald Ramm (Apostolic Episcopal Catholic Church). Archbishop Persson also serves as the Missionary General for Scandinavia and All Europe for both the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Catholic Church, confirmed 15 June 1988; this is a member jurisdiction of The Anglican Communion) and the Igreja Católica Apostólica Brasiliera (Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, confirmed 14 June 1987). Archbishop Persson consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl J. Barwin as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on 5 August 1989, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Bishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude; Archbishop of Albuquerque and Dependencies, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

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The Apostolic Succession
from

The Mexican National Catholic Church

(Iglesia Ortodoxa Católica Apostólica Mexicana)

Generalissimo Plutarco Elias Calles, President of Mexico (1924 – 1928), and the Mexican government, with the intent of minimizing the great political influence and control then exercised by The Church of Rome and its Bishops in Mexico, desired to foster and encourage a native-based national Church which would not be subject to foreign interests and goals. Eventually the President formally requested Archbishop Carmel Henry Carfora (of the North American Old Roman Catholic Church) to consecrate bishops for Mexico and to thus help establish a National Church.

On 17 October 1926 in Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., Abp. Carfora consecrated: José Joaquin Pérez y Budar, Antonio Benicio López y Sierra, and Dr. Macario López y Valdes for this government-supported new national jurisdiction. Bp. José Joaquin Pérez y Budar became Primate and Patriarch of the Iglesia Ortodoxa Católica Apostólica Mexicana (also known as: The Mexican National Catholic Church, The Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church of Mexico, or The Mexican Old Roman Catholic Church). Bp. Antonio Benicio López y Sierra was named Coädjutor and Dr. Macario López y Valdes (a doctor of Osteopathic Medicine in the United States) was consecrated as Bishop of Puebla de Zaragoza.

This government-sponsored patriotic movement to establish a National, rather than foreign-controlled, Church was comparatively short-lived. Under the leadership of a Roman trained and ordained priest who had joined the National Church and been consecrated a Bishop of the Mexican National Church in 1961, the Iglesia Ortodoxa Católica Apostólica Mexicana united with a U.S. Orthodox jurisdiction. The leader of this movement, Bishop José Cortes y Olmas, was re-consecrated as Bishop-Exarch of the Mexican Exarchate of the Orthodox Church in America in 1972 at Holy Virgin Protection Cathedral in New York City. Most of the parishes not joining the Orthodox Church in America returned to The Church of Rome (including many extension parishes in Texas).

Although three Bishops were consecrated to initiate the Mexican hierarchy, the “Nationalistas” (as they were often called), failed to replace The Church of Rome in Mexico and today only one remnant parish in Mexico and the East Los Angeles parish of Archbishop Emil F. Rodriquez y Fairfield remain. Unlike the Filipinos, the Mexicans demanded continued celibacy in their national independent Church and were unable to recruit new priests.

The Apostolic Succession

from
The Mexican National Catholic Church
(Iglesia Ortodoxa Católica Apostólica Mexicana)
Bishop Carmel Henry Carfora was consecrated in the Chapel of St. Dunstan’s Abbey in Waukegan, Illinois, by Archbishop Rudolf Franziskus Eduard de Landas Berghes et de Rache assisted by Bishop William Henry Francis Brothers, on 4 October 1916 as Archbishop of Canada. In 1919 Abp. Carfora became Primate of The North American Old Roman Catholic Church. Abp. Carfora consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop José Macario López y Valdes on 17 October 1926 in Chicago, Illinois, as Bishop of Puebla de Zaragoza, Mexico, for the Iglesia Ortodoxa Católica Apostólica Mexicana. Bishop Valdes consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Alberto Luis Rodriguez y Durand on .27 March 1930 “Por Autoridad del Patriarca de la Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana” in the Old Catholic Orthodox Church of St. Augustine of the Mystical Body of Christ in Lost Angeles, California, USA, as Bishop Ordinary of Los Angeles and Regionary Bishop in Alto California. Bp. Rodriguez y Durand consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Emile Federico Rodriguez y Fairfield on 12 March 1955 in the Church of St. Augustine of the Mystical Body of Christ in Los Angeles, California, USA, as Bishop for Alta California. In 1983, with the death of Bp. José Cortes y Olmas, Bp. Rodriguez y Fairfield became the sole living possessor of episcopal orders from the Iglesia Ortodoxa Católica Apostólica Mexicana. On 13 September 1983 he was installed as the Archbishop/Primate of the Iglesia Ortodoxa Católica Apostólica Mexicana and head of the only remaining parish of that Church in East Los Angeles. Abp. Rodriguez y Fairfield consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl Julius Barwin as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on The Feast of Saint Addai and Saint Mari (5 August) 1989, in The Chapel of The Holy Guardian Angels in Glendale, California, assisting Archbishop Bertil Persson (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), together with Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Archbishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Eric T. Ong Veloso (Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

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The Apostolic Succession
from
The Church of The East
The Church of The East also known as The Syrian Church, The East Syrian Church, or The Church of Assyria, claims Apostolic origins. She traces Her existence back to a small Christian community founded by the Apostles Peter, Thomas, and Bartholomew, as well as St. Addai and St. Mari of The Seventy, at Edessa (Urfa) during the first century after Christ. Although Her list of Bishops, with their years of service to The Church, is even more difficult to verify than that of The Church of Rome, Her tradition of Apostolic Succession has never been challenged.

The Church of The East enjoyed a limited measure of tolerance during the first few centuries after Christ under Persian rule. This was due primarily to the Persian’s endemic and inveterate hatred of the Romans and the persecution of the Christian religion in The Roman Empire.

About 280 A.D., Mar (“Lord”, Abouna, Episkopos, Bishop) Papa organized The Church into a Metropolitanate centered around the city of Seleucia, which is about thirty miles from modern-day Baghdad. After the conversion of Emperor Constantine of Rome to Christianity, however, the loyalty of Persian Christians became suspect. For almost one hundred years (c. 330 – 440 A.D.) Christians in the Persian Empire suffered under intermittent persecution. One of the blessed martyrs, in fact, was The Catholicos (the designation for The Metropolitan of Seleucia-Ctesiphon after 280 A.D.), Shimun bar Sabbai. In the fifth century The Catholicos took the title of Catholicos-Patriarch of The East. The persecution of Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries scattered the members of The Church across all of Asia; they brought their Church with them. The Church grew rapidly during these centuries, reaching Her peak of cultural development and influence during the reign of Catholicos-Patriarch Yabhalaha III (1283 – 1318 A.D.). The Church’s members and missionaries by this time had carried The Church of The East across all of Asia, from Arabia to Ceylon, Burma, India, Thailand, Indochina and into China itself. The Assyrian Church seemed destined to become the sole source of Christian instruction for the oriental world. The rise of the Mongols, however, slowed this missionary effort, and nearly destroyed The Church.

By the mid-fifteenth century, the core of The Assyrian Church had sought refuge in the mountains of Kurdistan and Azerbaijan. Political developments about this time made communication between The Metropolitan of Malabar, a major center of The Church, and The Catholicos-Patriarch of The East impossible. This eventually resulted in the conversion of the Malabar members of The Church of The East to The Church of Rome or to the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch. The sack of Baghdad was followed by the widespread destruction of Church property and buildings, and the wholesale slaughter of Church leaders. This led, of necessity, to the election (with Shim’un V or VI) of the nephew of the previous Patriarch. The Patriarch had been raised in his uncle’s house, trained from birth for the high position to which he was now elected. The Patriarchate now became hereditary in the bar Mama family, with succession passing from uncle to nephew or sometimes to brother. After the crisis subsided, upon the death of Ishu’yabh Shim’un VIII in 1551 A.D. (about one hundred years after the establishment of the hereditary Patriarchate) a significant faction of Bishops and secular leaders attempted to restore the ancient electoral process. They chose a monk to be the new Catholicos-Patriarch, Sa’ud bar Dani’il, whose religious name was Yukhannan Sulaqa. Dinkha Shim’un bar Mama, however, was named by his family as successor to his uncle, Ishu’yabh. Thus The Church was split into two factions: The Church of The East and what later came to be known as The Chaldean Catholic Church. To complicate matters, Sulaqa immediately sought legitimacy from Rome; Pope Julius III ratified his election and bestowed upon him the official title of Patriarch of The Chaldeans.

Seeking to unify The Church once again, Shim’un bar Mama engineered the arrest and subsequent execution of his rival, Sulaqa, in 1555 A.D. The dissident faction, however, elected ‘Abdishu’ Marun as Yukhannan Sulaqa’s successor.

Shim’un bar Mama died in 1558 A.D. His successor, Iliya Shim’un Dinkha, started the tradition of giving each Patriarch the same name. The rival Catholicos-Patriarch, ‘Abdishu’ Marun, died in 1567 A.D. (or 1571 A.D.), and was succeeded after some delay by Yabhalaha IV (also called Yabhalaha Shim’un).

A large faction of The Church headed by Iliya Shim’un Dinkha, led by The Metropolitan of Gelu (who was also called Dinkha Shim’un), rejected the authority of the bar Mama family, and submitted to Yabhalaha Shim’un, the rival Catholicos-Patriarch. On the latter’s death in 1580 A.D., The Metropolitan of Gelu was rewarded by being elected his successor, the first Patriarch of the Shim’un family. Thus was established the second hereditary line of Patriarchs within The Church of The East.

Through political pressure the rival Shim’uns were forced to move their See to the mountains of Kurdistan. Throughout the next three hundred years The Catholicos of the Shim’un family and their Church remained isolated from outside contact, even losing contact with Rome. The last hereditary Catholicos, Ishai Shim’un XXIII, succeeded in 1920 A.D. at the age of twelve. In 1933 A.D., after his return to Iraq from his English school, he attempted to restore the old civil authority of the patriarchate. His supporters took up arms and, in an unfortunate series of events, were massacred by government soldiers. Shim’un spent the rest of his life in exile, much of it in San Francisco, California, USA. He resigned his office in 1973 A.D., without any obvious successor. The Church was thrown into turmoil. Church leaders from Iraq pleaded with The Patriarch to renounce his resignation–at least until some provisions for the succession could be made. Shim’un agreed to return for a six-month period, at which point a Synod of three bishops was appointed to govern The Church during the interregnum. When Shim’un was murdered two years later (November of 1975 A.D.), the Bishops agreed to restore the ancient electoral process. A new Patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV, was chosen in October of 1976 A.D. at a special meeting of Church leaders in London, England. The official language of The Church is Syriac. The first freely-elected Patriarch in centuries, whose official title is Catholicos-Patriarch of The Church of The East, resided in Chicago, Illinois.

In 1586 A.D., in contrast to the isolation of the Shim’uns, the bar Mama family began exchanging letters with The Patriarch of Rome. They formally submitted to papal authority in 1616 A.D. at Dyarbekir. This submission came to end by 1669 A.D.. The Metropolitan of Dyarbekir, Yusip, subsequently withdrew his allegiance from both factions of The Church (in 1672 A.D.) and fled to Rome in 1675 A.D. There he was granted the title of Patriarch by Pope Innocent XI in 1681 A.D. There were now three Assyrian Patriarchs. Yusip’s successor, Yusip II (or III) was given the title Patriarch of Babylon in 1701 A.D. On the death of Yusip IV in 1779 A.D., the Patriarch’s nephew was able to succeed his uncle as Metropolitan of Dyarbekir but not as Patriarch (only as Apostolic Administrator). Rome never granted him official recognition as Patriarch.

Iliya XIII bar Mama died in 1804 A.D. No successor was elected; a Roman Catholic cousin of the last Patriarch, Yukhannan Khurmiz, tried to claim the patriarchate and even sought official recognition from The Pope. With two Papal claimants to two different patriarchal thrones, The Roman Church declined to recognize either until the death of Yusip (V) in 1828 A.D. Khurmiz was thereupon acknowledged as Patriarch of Babylon of The Chaldeans in 1830 A.D. To forestall the possibility of the re-establishment of an hereditary patriarchate, a co-adjutor Patriarch with the right of succession was appointed in 1838 A.D. This Uniate Chaldean Church nearly broke with Rome again in 1869 A.D. over the imposition by The Pope of the Bull Reversurus, which deprived The Patriarch of his prerogative to select and consecrate Chaldean bishops. Patriarch Yusip VI was threatened with excommunication in 1876 A.D., but managed to smooth over his difficulties with Rome before his death two years later. The official language of The Church is Syriac. The Patriarch resides at Baghdad, Iraq.

The Church of The East recognizes only the Öcumenical Councils of Nicaea (325 A.D.) and Constantinople (381 A.D.), although they do teach that from the moment of His conception Our Lord was both perfect man and perfect God. The Church rejects the title Mother of God for The Blessed Virgin Mary and insists upon Mother of Christ instead.

The doctrine of Apostolic Succession is rigorously adhered to; She teaches that apart from the apostolic succession “there are no sacraments, no Church, and no operation of The Holy Spirit” (Mar O’dishoo).

Holy Baptism is administered by triple immersion, usually forty days after birth, and immediately followed by Chrismation and First Holy Communion. In the Mystery of Holy Communion, The Church teaches that the leavened bread and the fermented wine are changed into The Body and Blood of Christ our God. The sacrifice of The Mass is identical with that of The Cross of Calvary, and not a repetition of it. Communicants both fast before participating in Holy Communion as well as drink The Precious Blood directly from The Chalice.

A strong tradition with The Church of The East is that St. Addai and St. Mari brought with them a portion of the original Bread consecrated by Jesus in the Upper Room at The Last Supper. The bread made for use in the Sacrament of Holy Communion is leavened with a part of the loaf consecrated at a previous celebration; thus each celebration of The Holy Eucharist in The Church of The East today is seen as a continuous material succession with the first Eucharist celebrated by Jesus in Jerusalem.

The Eucharistic Liturgy is the fourth-century Rite named after two of the traditional founders of The Church, St. Addai and St. Mari, and attributed to St. James of Jerusalem, the brother of The Lord.

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Church of The East through
The Patriarchate of Selucia-Ctesiphen & All The East
Maran Mar Rubil Shimun XVIII, Catholicos-Patriarch of Selucia-Ctesphen & All The East, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Antonius Abd-Ishu (Anthony Thondatta) as Metropolitan of India, Ceylon, Milapur, Socotra and Messina in The Holy Church of Mar Saba in Upper Tiari, on 17 December 1862 A.D. Mar Abd-Ishu, assisted by Mar Augustine (Michael Augustine) of The Syro-Chaldean Church, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Basilius (Luis Mariano Soares) as Bishop of Trichur on 24 July 1899 A.D. and head of a small body of Indian Christians known as Mellusians; he succeeded to the Metropolitanate upon Mar Abd-Ishu’s death in 1900 A.D. Mar Basilius consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Jacobus (Ulric Vernon Herford) as Bishop for the United Kingdom and with the Title of Mar Jacobus, Bishop of Mercia & Meddelesex (including the county of London) at Palithamm, near Kaliarkoli, Madura District, South India, on 30 November 1902 A.D. Upon his return to England, Mar Jacobus founded The Evangelical Catholic Communion with the hope of uniting East and West. Mar Jacobus consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Paulus (William Stanley McBean Knight) as Bishop of Kent on 28 February 1925 A.D. Mar Paulus consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Hedley (Hedley Coward Bartlett) as Bishop of Siluria on 18 October 1931 A.D. Mar Hedley consecrated sub conditioned to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Georgius (Hugh George de Willmott-Newman) as Metropolitan of Glastonbury on 20 May 1945 A.D., assisted by Bishop John Syer (Bishop of Llanthony), Mar Francis (Francis Ernest Langhelt, Bishop of Minster) and Bishop George Henry Brook (Order of Rievaulx). Mar Georgius consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Benignus (Richard Kenneth Hurgon) as Titular Bishop of Mere (Somerset) on 22 April 1946 A.D., assisted by Mar Leofric (Charles Leslie Saul, Archbishop-Exarch of The Catholicate of the West), Mar David (Francis David Bacon, Bishop of The Catholicate of the West), and Mar Johannus (William John Eaton Jeffrey, General Moderator of The Evangelical Catholic Communion and Bishop of The Catholicate of the West). Mar Benignus consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Alexander (Nils Bertil Alexander Persson) on 7 December 1985 A.D., assisted by Bishop Ian Kirk-Stewart (Reformed Catholic Church). Mar Alexander consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl (Karl Julius Barwin) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on 5 August 1989 A.D., assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Archbishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting in this consecration as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

 

Apostolic Succession from
The Church of The East through
The Patriarchate of Babylonia of The Chaldeans
Maran Man Yusip ‘Ummanu’il II Thoma (Yosif Khayatt), Catholicos-Patriarch of Babylonia of The Chaldeans, who was consecrated 24 July 1892 A.D. by Maran Mar Petros Elias XIV Abu-Al-Yunan (Patriarch 1878-1894 A.D.), assisted by the Bishop of Salmas & Patriarchal Vicar Pierre Aziz, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Antoine (Antoine Lefberne/Lefebvre) on 27 May 1917 A.D. as Patriarchal Exarch of Western Europe and Delegate & Special Commissary in the U.S.A. Mar Antoine was a member of the Ordo Antonianus S. Hormisdae Chaldaeorum. Mar Antoine consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar John Emmanuel (Arthur Wolfort Brooks) on 4 May 1925 A.D. in The Chapel of The Redeemer in New York City, assisted by Mar James (Fernand Portal) and Mar Evodius (Edward Robert Smith), Bishops of The Chaldean Catholic Church. On 19 November 1930 A.D., Mar John Emmanuel became Presiding Bishop of The Apostolic Episcopal Church, which had been accepted in 1929 A.D. by The Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem, Elisha I (Eghishe I Tourian). Mar John Emmanuel consecrated sub conditione to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar David I (Wallace de Ortega Maxey) on 13 July 1946 A.D. at St. Michael Hellenic Orthodox Church “Taxiarchai” of The Holy Land as Archbishop of The Province of The West of The Apostolic Episcopal Church, assisted by Rev’d David Leondarides and Rev’d Stanatios Jongsoudis of The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Mar David became Archbishop-Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church in 1948. Mar David I consecrated sub conditione to the Sacred Episcopate:

Mar Alexander (Nils Bertil Alexander Persson) and enthroned him as the Third Archbishop-Primate of The Apostolic Episcopal Church on 7 November 1986 A.D., assisted by Archbishop-Primate Juergen Bless (The German Old Catholic Church in America), Archbishop-Primate Emile Rodriguez y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Archbishop-Primate Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America), Bishop Daniel N. McCarty (The Apostolic Catholic Church of the Americas), Archbishop-Primate Robert Ronald Ramm (The Ancient Christian Fellowship) and Archbishop Paul G. W. Schultz (Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostolica Mexicana and Apostolic Administrator of The Province of The West of The Apostolic Episcopal Church). Mar Alexander consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl (Karl Julius Barwin) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on 5 August 1989 A.D., assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America) and Archbishop Howard D. van Orden (Order of St. Jude), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles and Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), Bishop Petros (Eric Tan Ong Veloso, Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Suffragan Bishop of Los Angeles, The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Bishop Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).
(Return)
The Apostolic Succession

from

The African Orthodox Church

Believing that Blacks should have a Church of their own, a PECUSA priest (the Rev’d Dr. George Alexander McGuire, an immigrant from the West Indies), withdrew from that jurisdiction to establish independent Black congregations in the United States. This new movement was first called the Independent Episcopal Church, but a few years later (on 2 September 1921) in The Church of the Good Shepherd in New York City the name was changed to “The African Orthodox Church.” This meeting became the first General Synod of the new jurisdiction, which also elected Fr. McGuire as its first Bishop.

Negotiations were immediately initiated with The Russian Orthodox Church in America in order to obtain valid Apostolic Orders for the newly elected Bishop. With the uncanonical actions of other national Orthodox groups in the United States, taking advantage of the confusion and disorganization caused by the Communist Revolution in Russia, the Russians were hesitant to assist the formation of yet another “independent” jurisdiction. They made it clear that they were willing to talk, but in the end they intended to fully control this Black jurisdiction.

Such an arrangement was totally unacceptable to Fr. McGuire and the other leaders of this new jurisdiction. Other Orthodox groups in the U.S.A. expressed the same willingness and intent as the Russians, however. The African Orthodox Church finally entered into negotiations with Archbishop Joseph Rene Vilatte and The American Catholic Church.

Bishop-elect George Alexander McGuire was finally consecrated on 28 September 1921 by Archbishop Vilatte (who took his episcopal orders from the West Syrian Church of Antioch) and Bishop Carl A. Nybladh (of The Swedish Orthodox Church) in The Church of Our Lady of Good Death in Chicago, Illinois.

The African Orthodox Church lays strong emphasis upon the Apostolic Succession, a valid priesthood and upon the historic Mysteries and Rites of The One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. It holds the original seven Sacraments of the Western Church; its worship is a blending of Western and Eastern liturgies and it espouses the three traditional and historic Catholic Creeds (i.e., Apostles, Nicene and Athanasian)..

Polity is, of course, episcopal; bishops are in charge of dioceses or jurisdictions. Groups of dioceses form a Province, which is led by an Archbishop. The Primate Archbishop Metropolitan is general overseer of all the work of the Church, which now extends over the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Union of South Africa. All baptized are considered members of the Church.

Apostolic Succession

from

The African Orthodox Church

Mar Timotheus I (Joseph Rene Vilatte, 1854-1929), Archbishop-Exarch of North America for The American Catholic Church, assisted by Bishop Carl A. Nybladh of The Swedish Orthodox Church, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop George Alexander McGuire (03/26/1866 – 11/10/1934) as Bishop of The African Orthodox Church in The Church of Our Lady of Good Death in Chicago, Illinois. Bp. McGuire became Primate in 1924 and took the title of Patriarch Alexander I. Bishop McGuire, assisted by Bp. Frederick Ebenezer John Lloyd (Primate of The American Catholic Church), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop William Ernest James Robertson (02/29/1875 – 1962) as Bishop of The African Orthodox Church in The Cathedral Church of the Good Shepherd in New York City on 18 November 1923. Bp. Robertson became Primate of The African Orthodox Church in 1934 and took the title of Mar James I. Bishop Robertson, assisted by Abp. Richard Grant Robinson (Abp. of Philadelphia), Bp. Clement John Cyril Sherwood, Bp. Collins Gordon Wolcott, and four other Bishops, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop William Russell Miller (03/02/1900 – ?) as Bishop of The African Orthodox Church on 6 August 1950 and as African Orthodox Rector in Brooklyn, N.Y. Bp. Miller became Primate of The African Orthodox Church in 1976. Ptr. Miller, assisted by Bp. George. Duncan Hinkson, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Richard Thomas McFarland as Bishop of The African Orthodox Church on 31 October 1976. Bp. McFarland, assisted by Bp. Leonard J. Curreri (Tridentine Catholic Church), consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Peter Paul Brennan as Bishop in Our Lady Queen of Heaven Church, Long Island, N.Y. on 10 June 1978. Bp. Brennan, assisting Bp. Patrick J. Callahan, consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Howard D. van Orden (1938 – ) as Bishop of The Western Rite Orthodox Catholic Church of Jesus in St. Stephen’s Orthodox Catholic Church of Savannah, Georgia, on 14 October 1984. Bp. van Orden was consecrated sub conditione for The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas on 10 December 1988 by Abp. Francisco de Jesus Pagtakhan (Archbishop Secretary for Missions, Ecumenical Relations and Foreign Affairs), assisted by Abp. Paul Schultz, Bp. Christopher Rogers, and Bp. Carroll Lowery. Bishop van Orden consecrated to the Sacred Episcopate:

Bishop Karl Julius Barwin (10/16/43 – ) as Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church on The Feast of Saint Addai and Saint Mari (5 August) 1989, in The Chapel of The Holy Guardian Angels in Glendale, California, assisting Archbishop Bertil Persson (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), and Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration. Assisting as Co-Consecrators were Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles, Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas, and Apostolic Administrator of the U.S.A. for The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Bishop Eric T. Ong Veloso (Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church).

 

The Apostolic Succession

from
The Order of Corporate Reunion
At the direction of the Roman Catholic Hierarch at Milan, Italy, in the summer of 1877, a plan was initiated for the purpose of introducing Orders into a Pro-Uniate Movement within The Church of England which The Vatican would be compelled to recognize as valid. Roman Catholic Archbishop Luigi Nazari di Calabiana of Milan (consecrated 12 April 1847; Archbishop of Milan from 1867 – 1893), joined near the city of Venice, Italy, by two unnamed Bishops (Greek and Coptic, their names being kept under the confessional seal but their validity guaranteed by The Vatican), did consecrate three bishops in the summer of 1877 to the sacred episcopacy:

Dr. Frederick George Lee (01/06/1832 – 01/22/02) as Bishop of Dorchester and Primate I of The Order of Corporate Reunion.

Thomas Wimberley Mossman (1826 – 06/06/1885 ) as Bishop of Selby.

Dr. John Thomas Seccombe (1835 – 1895 ) as Bishop of Caerleon.

Bp. Lee, Bp. Mossman and Bp. Seccombe, assisting Mar Pelagius I (Patriarch Richard Williams Morgan, First British Patriarch of the Patriarchate of Antioch for the Ancient British Church, consecrated in 1874 by Mar Julius {Raimond Ferrette}, Bishop of Iona and Patriarchal Legate for Western Europe; at some time Bp. Morgan was also consecrated by Bp. Seccombe), consecrated to the sacred episcopacy on 6 March 1879:

Charles Isaac Stevens (1935 – 02/02/17) as Mar Theophilus I for The Order of Corporate Reunion; later Hierarch of Caerleon-on-Usk and Second Patriarch of The Ancient British Church. Mar Theophilus I, assisted by Bp. Alfred Spencer Richardson of The Reformed Episcopal Church, consecrated to the sacred episcopacy on 4 May 1890:

Leon Chechemian (1848 – 1920) asMar Leon, Archbishop of Selsey for The Ancient British Church. Abp. Chechemian, assisted by Abp. James Martin, Bp. Frederick Boucher, and Bp. George W. L. Maaers, consecrated to the sacred episcopacy on 2 November 1897:

Andrew Charles Albert McLagen 1851 – 1928) as Colonial Missionary Bishop for Cape Colony and Titular Bishop of Claremont. In 1919 Bp. McLagen became the 4th Patriarch of The Ancient British Church. Ptr. McLagen consecrated to the sacred episcopacy on 4 June 1922:

Herbert James Monzani-Heard (1866 – 08/15/47) in St. Andrew’s Church, Retreat Place, London, as Mar Jacobus II, Bishop of Selsey and Primate of The Ancient British Church and the United Armenian Catholic Church. Bp. Heard became the 5th Patriarch of The Ancient British Church/Free Protestant Episcopal Church in 1930. Ptr. Monzani-Heard consecrated to the sacred episcopacy on 13 June 1943:

William Bernard Crow (09/11/1895 – 06/28/76) as Mar Bernard, Bishop of Santa Sophia. On 17 October 1943 at “The Council of London,” Bp. Crow was elected by representatives of The Ancient British Church, British Orthodox Catholic Church, Apostolic Episcopal Church, Old Catholic Orthodox Church, Order of the Holy Wisdom, and Order of Antioch to the Patriarchal See of Antioch with the title of Mar Basilius Abdullah III. On 23 March 1944 the Ancient British Church, British Orthodox Catholic Church and the Old Catholic Orthodox Church banded together to form The Western Orthodox Catholic Church. Ptr. Mar Basilius Abdullah II consecrated to the sacred episcopacy on 10 April 1944:

Hugh George de Willmott Newman 01/17/05 – 02/28/79) as Mar Georgius. On 29 January 1945 Mar Georgius became the 6th Patriarch of The Ancient British Church with the title Patriarch of Glastonbury. Ptr. Mar Georgius, assisted by Mar Joannes, Titular Bishop of St. Marylebone (William John Eaton Jeffrey), Mar Leofric, Archbishop of Suthronia in the Eparchy of all the Britons (Charles Leslie Saul), and Mar David, Bishop of Repton (Dr. Francis David Bacon), consecrated to the sacred episcopacy on 22 April 1946:

Richard Kenneth Hurgon (04/24/02 – ?) as Mar Benignus, Titular Bishop of Mere (Somerset). On 29 March 1981 Mar Benignus became Primus of The Reformed Catholic Church (Utrecht Confession). Bp. Hurgon consecrated to the sacred episcopacy on 7 December 1985:

Nils Bertil Alexander Persson (11/10/41 – ), Archbishop of Europe & Asia, The Apostolic Episcopal Church. He was enthroned as Primate of the Apostolic Episcopal Church on 7 November 1986 and served as Primate VIII of The Order of Corporate Reunion. Abp. Persson, assisted by Archbishop Emile Federico Rodrigues y Fairfield (Iglesia Ortodoxa Catolica Apostolica Mexicana), Abp. Howard D. van Orden (Philippine Independent Catholic Church in the Americas), Bishop Carroll T. Lowery (The Apostolic Episcopal Church), and Archbishop Arthur J. Garrow (The Archiepiscopate Ordinariate of Healing Arts Missionaries & Chaplains in America), each assisting, coöperating and co-consecrating by laying on hands and uttering all the words of consecration in unison, together with Archbishop Paul Christian Gerald W. Schultz (Archbishop of Los Angeles, Administrator of The Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas, and Apostolic Administrator in the U.S.A. for The Apostolic Episcopal Church), Bishop Eric T. Ong Veloso (Orthodox Catholic Church in The Philippines), Bishop Christopher J. Rogers (Philippine Independent Catholic Church in The Americas), and Exarch Marciel (Michael Marshall, Orthodox Old Catholic Church), consecrated to the sacred episcopacy on 5 August 1989:

Karl Julius Barwin (10/16/43 – ), Primate, The Evangelical Catholic Church.

The Order of The Servants of The Holy Cross was established by some members of The Fellowship of Saint Augustine of Oxford, Michigan (a prayer fellowship for Lutherans concerned with promoting interest in, study, and understanding of the religious life in community), and candidates for Holy Orders within The Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod at Concordia Senior College in Ft. Wayne, Indiana, on 27 May 1965. Membership has fluctuated over the years but today there appears to be a renewed interest in this Order.

The history of The Order is a reflection of the liturgical and doctrinal renaissance among Lutherans in the U.S.A. With a greater appreciation of and return to the Lutheran Confessions, the sacramental life, the true Catholicity of the Lutheran Movement, and a growth in liturgical piety among North American Lutherans, a return to the ancient heritage of cenobitic life is inevitable. This is only the beginning! If God’s grace indeed resides in these things which Lutherans hold precious and dear, this movement shall be the spark to light a fire of Pentecostal fervor and Apostolic influence.

The regrettable actions of The Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod in 1969, which many Brothers at the time believed caused the Missouri Synod to become schismatic (if it was not already so before this time), forced The Order to reconsider her ecclesiastical affiliation. Finally, on Holy Cross Day in 1976, The Evangelical Catholic Church was approached and The Order applied for status as a Religious Community within that Jurisdiction. The Order of The Servants of The Holy Cross was accepted as a monastic community within The Evangelical Catholic Church on The Feast of Saint Andrew in 1977. The Order’s Superior-General is automatically a member of The Church’s Board of Directors.

During the first years of existence within The Evangelical Catholic Church, the service of The Order to The Church and Her Lord has been one mainly of worship and work. The Order is anxious to send men out into the world – and as God gives them grace and talents, more men and opportunities – to serve His Church in every way. For the present, it is important that the community gain stability and its members strength through a life in common.

As The Order looks into the future, it sees many opportunities for service, great vistas for work publishing booklets and liturgical and doctrinal materials, producing ecclesiastical and liturgical art, preaching, teaching, instructing, assisting the poor and helping those abandoned by others.

Any man interested in joining The Order is first asked to visit with either The Abbott or The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church. If, after this visit, he still desires to actively consider joining The Order, he asks The Abbott to receive him as a Postulant. He will then join with The Order in its work, prayer, and service for a period of time long enough for him and The Order to come to a clear view of his vocation to the religious life. As a Postulant, however, he is free to leave (or to be asked to leave) The Order at any time. At the end of this period of time, if he desires to be received as a Novice and is accepted for The Order by The Abbott, he takes his first annual solemn vows. The Novitiate is for a period of no less than one year. Thus begins the long journey into tomorrow.
Soli Deo gloria!

The Rule for
The Order of The Servants of The Holy Cross

ARTICLE I: Name

The name of this religious Order shall be: The Order of The Servants of The Holy Cross.
ARTICLE II: Objects & Purposes
Section I: To awaken and nurture in those who follow The Way of Our Lord Jesus Christ a common life of Faith through prayer, study, and work.

Section II: To promote the systematic study of The Holy Bible and constant growth in Christian knowlege through the establishment, construction, and maintenance of theological seminaries, colleges, universities, academies, schools, publishing houses, radio and television broadcasting systems, web sites, congregations and preaching stations.

Section III: To encourage and foster the establishment of religious communities within The Evangelical Church of The Augsburg Confession.

Section IV: To actively work for and foster the visible unity of all Christians.

Section V: To assist, guide, direct, and promote the spiritual growth and development of the Faithful through the conduct and sponsorship of spiritual retrerats.

Section VI: To establish and conduct all such enterprises and endeavors and to exercise such further powers as may be necessary or expedient to carry out the objects and purposes for which this Order is founded.
ARTICLE III: Membership
Section I: All members of The Evangelical Catholic Church (and those ecclesiastical jurisdictions with which The Evangelical Catholic Church is in full communion) who keep themselves active in use of Word and Sacrament are eligible to apply for membership in the Order.

Section II: Although the Order is under the jurisdiction of The Evangelical Catholic Church, it does not exclude Christians from other communions which hold the same confession and agree with The Evangelical Catholic Church in that they confess the Catholic Faith of all places and all times.

Section III: Full membership is achieved only after at least three months as a Postulant and at least one year as a Novice.

Part 1: A Brother’s vows are renewed annually at The Vigil of The Holy Feast (Easter) until his solemn profession (life vows) is made.
Part 2: Solemn Profession (life vows) is made after the Brother has reached thirty years of age, has had several yars under annual vows in the Order, and after the Chapter has accepted his request to be received.
Section IV: A man who would like to provehis calling to community life in The Order of The Servants of The Holy Cross but is prevented from entering the Order immediately, may be received as an Aspirant.

Section V: Aspirants live under a common rule:

Part 1: Attend Mass and receive Holy Communion each Sunday and Holy Day (if possible);
Part 2: Daily pray The Office, or a part of it agreed to by his Spiritual Advisor;
Part 3: Include in his daily intercessions petitions for the members of this Order, the renewal of religious community life within The Church of The Augsburg Confession, The Evangelical Catholic Church, and the visible unity of all Christendom;
Part 4: Make a “retreat” under the direction of his Spiritual Advisor each year;
Part 5: Study monastic tradition and the history of religious life;
Part 6: Consecrate daily tasks and life as service to God;
Part 7: Live a chaste life in feelings, thoughts, words, and deeds, resisting temptations and desires which are against God’s Holy Will.
Section VI: Single adults who wish to identify with the Order but have no present intention to taking up the religious life may be received as Associate members; in the manner and degree suitable to the situation, Associate members will follow the common rule for Aspirants.
ARTICLE IV: Organization
Section I: The Order of The Servants of The Holy Cross is a religious Order within and under the control and jurisdiction of The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Section II: The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church has the supervision regarding the doctrine, faith, morals, discipline and administration of all members of The Order of The Servants of The Holy Cross; he has the authority and duty to see to it that all members of the Order act in accordance with the Canons, Articles of Incorporation, and By-Laws of The Evangelical Catholic Church and to admonish and discipline all who in any way depart from them.

Section III: The physical and spiritual body of The Order shall be attended to by: a Superior-General; a Dean for Congregational Affairs; a Dean for Ecclesiastical Affairs; and a Procurator-General.

Section IV: The Superior-General, together with the Dean for Congregational Affairs, the Dean for Ecclesiastical Affairs, the Procurator-General, and The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, shall constitute the Plenary Council, which shall be responsible for the maintenance and functioning of The Order. Each member of this Council, presided over by The Superior-General, shall have one vote in Council affairs.

Section V: The Order gathers yearly in a Chapter meeting. Only those Brothers who have reached full membership in this Order shall take part in The Chapter meeting and have the right to speak and vote. Aspirants, Associates, Postulants and Novices may make proposals in writing to The Chapter; such proposals must be received a minimum of 14 days before the annual meeting.

Section VI: The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church shall serve as The Episcopal Visitor, who shall visit The Order (or House within The Order) when he deems it suitable or at the request of The Superior-General, the Brother-Superior of the House, or of two or more Brothers. All members have the right to appeal to The Episcopal Visitor in any and all matters concerning the Order. Solemn Profession may be made before The Episcopal Visitor or someone appointed by The Chapter in Apostolic Succession recognized by The Evangelical Catholic Church.

Section VII: The Plenary Council may divide The Order into Houses, when it deems membership warrants such action. Each House created by The Plenary Council shall elect for a five-year term its own Brother-Superior, who shall have such powers and duties as The Chapter and the House wish to bestow upon him (within the guidelines of this Rule and the Canons, Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws of The Evangelical Catholic Church).

Section VIII: The tenure of office for all officers of The Order shall be five years. In the case of vacancy, The Superior-General, in consultation with The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church, shall appoint a successor who will serve until the next regular meeting of The Chapter. The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church shall appoint a member of The Order to serve as Superior-General for the remainder of the term of office when that office become vacant.

Section IX: The Dean for Ecclesiastical Affairs shall be charged with the responsibility of watching over the uniformity and safe-guarding the development of the rites and ceremonies of The Order; to resolve all questions of etiquette and precedence in the affairs of The Order; to act as parliamentarian for The Order; to promote and supervise popular religious instruction; to supervise the training of novices; to give instructions for the observance of holydays, fasting, and dress; to see that this Rule and its vows are observed by the membership; and to plan and organize all meetings of The Chapter.

Section X: The Procurator-General shall receive all contributions to The Order, keeping an accurate record of all receipts and disbursements; pay all bills approved by The Plenary Council; exercise authority, on behalf of The Order and with the approval of The Chapter, over the administration of all ecclesiastical property (which must be held by The Order in trust for The Evangelical Catholic Church); act as Public Relations Manager for The Order; and exercise such other duties as The Chapter or Plenary Council shall bestow upon him.

Section XI: It shall be the responsibility of The Superior-General, as executive officer of The Order, to conduct all meetings of The Plenary Council and Chapter; to coördinate the work of all officers, members, and committees; appoint all committees and committee members and be ex officio a member of the same; to ordain (if he be a Bishop with valid Apostolic Orders), or cause to be ordained, all candidates for Holy Orders declared eligible for and worthy of ordination by The Plenary Council (but only after receiving The Primate’s written authorization); to exercise the duties of all or any one of the officers of this Order when he feels they are incompetent and until such time as The Primate of The Evangelical Catholic Church or The Chapter of The Order re-instates the individual in his office or elects a successor; to attain and discharge all other responsibilities which, as the head of this Order, shall befall him.

Und [wir] sagen, dieselbe Kirche habe diese äußerlichen Zeichen: das Predigtamt oder Evangelium and die Sakramente. (Apology of The Augsburg Confess, VII, 20).
The Church is recognized externally, writes Father Martin Luther in On the Councils and The Church, by the fact that She consecrates or calls ministers, or has offices that She is to administer. From the writings of The New Testament and from the teachings, traditions and customs of Holy Mother Church, we know that the Priesthood is a necessary element of The Church, and is included among Her constitutive marks (nota ecclesiae), having received its beginning and its mission directly for our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and from The Holy Apostles.

Theologians have sometimes argued over whether the sacred ministry belongs to the esse or the bene esse of The Church. In the latter case it is asserted that the sacred ministry is only the activity of the universal Royal Priesthood of Believers, the public exercise of which the Christian community has transferred to certain men for the sake of “good order.” In this non-Catholic, non-Lutheran view, the sacred ministry is not essential for The Church and does not belong to Her constitutive factors. Those holding this view usually proclaim it to be the Reformation position, in contrast to both the Roman and Orthodox positions and Dr. Luther’s understanding of the Scriptural teaching on the sacred ministry. The Evangelical Catholic Church, however, emphasizes (perhaps even more strongly than The Church of Rome) that the sacred ministry is a divine institution based on a divine commission. The Evangelical Catholic priest represents the person of Christ Jesus, not his own person – as Christ testifies in Luke 10:16, He that heareth you heareth Me. When Evangelical Catholic priests offer The Word of God, when they offer The Holy Sacraments, they offer them in the stead and in the place of Christ (Ministerium Verbei habet mandatum Dei, Apology VII, 28).

Thus the sacred ministry within The Evangelical Catholic Church is securely based upon The New Testament. It is inseparably connected with The Church. Its basis is the command of Christ, a divine commission. Our Lord asserts that there MUST be Bishops who take heed unto the flock and feed the Church of God (Acts 20″28-31); who rule well and labor in the Word and doctrine (I Tim. 5:17); who are over the believers in The Lord and admonish them (I Thess. 5:12-13); and who watch over their souls as they who must give account (Heb. 13:17). This priesthood exists, therefore, because of Christ’s institution and it possesses an authority given to it by Christ.

The Bishop, who is to feed the flock, scripturally has rule over the flock (for if he does not have rule over the flock, then he is an hireling and not a Christian Bishop). Saint Paul admonishes all believers:

Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the Word of God . . . Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you. (Heb. 13:7, 17)
Thus Holy Scripture clearly teaches a form of Church polity (government). Bishops, those who have been called as Christ’s representatives by God into the Sacred Ministry, are to rule over The Church as a father governs his household; they shall be held accountable to God for their administration. The Faithful are commanded here and in the Fourth Commandment to obey their spiritual fathers, the Bishops who have spoken unto you the Word of God – for The Faithful shall be held accountable to God for the obedience they render their Bishops and pastors.

A Bishop then must be . . . one that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity. (I Tim. 3:2,4)
A so-called democratic form of Church polity, therefore, or even a congregational form of polity, where the children rule the father, is unscriptural, non-Catholic, non-Lutheran, and a subversion of both God’s natural and revealed Order.

That this Christian priesthood has a commission from God is emphasized throughout the whole New Testament, in the Gospels as well as the Epistles. Christ commissioned His Apostles and sent them out into the world as His representatives, as He testifies to The Father: As Thou [Father] didst send Me into the world, so I have sent them into Thy world (John 17:18; cf. John 20:21). These messengers and representatives of Christ as invested with authority by The Lord, even the authority to forgive sins in His Most Holy Name.

Christ gave to The Apostles only spiritual power, i.e., the command to teach The Gospel, to announce the forgiveness of sins, to administer the Sacraments, to excommunicate the godless without bodily force (by The Word) … (Of the Power & Primacy of the Pope, 31)
Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in Heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in Heaven. (Matt. 18:18; cf. Matt. 16:19, John 20:22-23). But this authority is not a personal authority, for Evangelical Catholic priests are entirely dependent upon Christ – they are His instruments and servants, accountable to Him as His stewards. The purpose of the sacred ministry is to make disciples of all nations and to nurture and father The Faithful, and this doen in His Name by His representatives.

That we may obtain this faith (daß wir Vergebung der Sünden bekommen und vor Gott gerecht werden aus Gnaden, um Christus’ willen, durch den Glauben) the Ministry of Teaching the Gospel and administering the Sacraments was instituted. For through the Word and Sacraments, as through instruments, The Holy Spirit is given, Who works Faith, where and when it pleases God, in them that hear The Gospel (Augsburg Confession, V).
In both the Acts of The Apostles and the Epistles we see how this sacred ministry developed in The Church under The Holy Spirit’s guidance. The decisive element is the commission which has been given and which is to be faithfully administered. We find that St. Paul, often in the strongest terms, emphasizes the commission, ministry, and service which have been given to him by Christ. But he emphasizes just as strongly that the authority is not his, and that he is nothing in himself.

What then is Apollos? What is Paul? Servants (II Cor. 3:5). He wants to be known as a servant of Christ and a steward of the mysteries of God (I Cor. 4:1). His boldness rests on the fact that the ministry has been given to him by God’s mercy. Therefore, having this ministry by the mercy of God, we do not lose heart (II Cor. 4:1). His confidence does not come because we are sufficient of ourselves to claim anything as coming from us; our sufficiency is from God (II Cor. 3:5). This ministry is entirely a service of Christ. But for that very reason it is at the same time directed toward the service of The Church (and thus of the local congregation). The ministry can serve The Church only by being entirely a service to Christ. If I were still pleasing men, I should not be a servant of Christ (Gal. 1:10). Service to The Church consists in this: The messengers bring forth the message about Christ. We preach . . . not ourselves, but Jesus Christ as Lord, with ourselves as your servants for Jesus’ sake(II Cor. 4:5). The messengers thereby contribute to the joy of The Church. Not that we lord it over your faith; we work with you for your joy (II Cor. 1:24).

When we consider the ideas of the ministry expressed in these quotations from Scripture, it is clear that the starting point with reference to the Holy Ministry is the Commission. The Lord Himself has given this commission, in the first place to His Apostles who thus have a special position, but also through them to all those who during the centuries have been authorized as the messengers of Christ in the footsteps of The Apostles. This means that the commission of Christ is continually given through The Church, and that, from the point of view of Faith, the ministry is maintained in The Church through the activity of The Holy Spirit. From this point of view it becomes quite misleading to ask whether the Commission comes from The Church or from The Lord Himself. From the point of view of faith this alternative is meaningless, since a commission from The Church can not be such unless it is a commission from The Lord Who is the Head of The Church.

Saint Paul defines the ministry of The Church as a ministry of reconciliation. Its significance can hardly be expressed in a more vivid manner.

All this is from God, Who through Christ reconciled us to Himself and gave us the ministry of reconciliation; that is, God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting to us the message of reconciliation. So we are ambassadors for Christ, God making His appeal through us. We beseech you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God (II Cor. 5:18-20).
That the ministry of The Church is a ministry of reconciliation implies that it has its foundation in the finished work of Christ Jesus, in the Atonement. If the reconciliation is a work of God from above, then the ministry of reconciliation is also a gift from above, a ministry given by God. The atonement demands a ministry, not because it needs to be finished, completed or even repeated. It has been done once and for all! It remains for all times and generations. But the atonement demands a ministry because it addresses itself to every new age and every new generation of man. The victorious act of reconciliation must be carried out in new struggles. The victory of self-giving loves does not mean that the struggle has ceased. The ministry of reconciliation is a ministry of struggle and conflict. As God’s act of reconciliation in Christ Jesus was carried out in a struggle against the destructive powers, so the messengers of reconciliation (His priests and Bishops) are called upon to participate in this struggle. It is carried on in the consciousness that human power does not avail anything here, for everything is from God, but also in the consciousness that Christ is the Victorious Lord and that His priests go forth under His authority.

The ministry of reconciliation must proclaim the message of reconciliation. All the tasks which may belong to the Holy Priesthood are gathered together in this one essential function: The Word of Reconciliation has been entrusted to us. This aspect must be carefully noted. The message which has been entrusted to the messengers must be proclaimed as it really is. Attention must be drawn to the message, not to the messenger. The messenger serves the cause whose servant he has become. The priest is an instrument, nothing else – but also nothing less than Our Lord’s instrument. It is the cause itself that is to speak. The Word and The Sacraments are the bearers of the message of reconciliation. The Sacred Ministry belongs to the constitutive factors of The Church because The Word and The Sacraments are the constitutive factors of The Church. This means likewise that the activity of the ministry has its center in the Church’s worship life. It has been thus from the very beginning in The One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church, and so it must remain. Ordinances and forms may change, but The Church is the same throughout the ages. The fellowship of The Church is a fellowship in The Word and The Sacraments, a fellowship which expresses itself in worship. Worship is the center of The Church, because the decisive element is fellowship with Christ, and because this fellowship is realized in worship life. Where two or three are gathered in My Name, there am I in the midst of them (Matt. 18:20). This fellowship with Christ is especially connected with The Lord’s Supper, which is the seal of The New Covenant. The function of the Holy Ministry appears, therefore, as something secure and irrevocable, however much the forms of activity may change. There is no other Church than the historical, actual, concrete Catholic Church which stems from Christ and His Apostles, and which is founded on The Word of God and The Most Holy Sacraments in whose service the ministry of The Church is engaged.

The Office of The Sacred Ministry has its own distinctive task and function in The Church. This special, divinely created office, is not rendered unnecessary even though the New Testament declares that all Christians are called to be a Royal Priesthood – that is, a body of people who praise our Lord for the undeserved mercy He has shown us in calling us out of eternal death to eternal life. An equality before God because of Christ Jesus does not mean that a special office of the ministry, ordained by Christ Jesus Himself, becomes superfluous. All who are called to faith in the One True God (Jesus the Christ) are members of the Royal Priesthood, but not all are called to the public priesthood. All who are called to faith in Christ Jesus are members of a priestly nation, but each retains his station in life as he lives among the Gentiles. It is The Lord Who calls and consecrates some for the special office of serving His Church in the Holy Priesthood.

 

 

First Tonsure & Bestowal of Clerical Habit

Admission to Minor Orders
Door-Keeper
Reader
Acolyte
Ordination of a Subdeacon
Ordination of a Deacon
Ordination of a Priest

 

First Tonsure & Bestowal of Clerical Habit

The Presentation of Candidates

Each Candidate shall appear holding a surplice over one arm. The Bishop, without Mitre and Staff, says:

B: Our help is in the Name of The Lord.
C: Who made Heaven and earth.

B: Blessed be the Name of the Lord.
C: Now and for evermore.

Then the Presenter shall read the list of Candidates. Every Candidate, upon hearing his name read, shall respond: Present. The Bishop shall sit and have his Mitre and Crozier.

The Examination

B: According to Saint Jerome, the Cleric vowed to the service of The Church of Christ Jesus answers fully to his name of Clericus. This word signifies that he belongs to God or that God Himself is the portion of the Cleric. Now whoever is the portion of God or has God for his portion must prove himself such that he does truly possess God and he himself is possessed of God. Renunciation is the daily lot of the Cleric from the moment he enlists in the ranks of the Clergy. Now, dearly beloved son(s), have you carefully considered the duties and responsibilities which you are about to undertake in the Church of God?
Candidate(s): Yes, Venerable Father in God.

B: Are you well disposed to accept the duties and obligations of the clerical status?
Candidate(s): I do accept them, God being my helper.

B: May God Almighty bless you in the execution of His work.

The Candidates shall kneel, and Psalm 15 is said or sung.

Lord, who shall dwell in They tabernacle?
Or who shall rest upon Thy holy hill?
Even he that leadeth an uncorrupt life,
and doeth the thing which is right, and speaketh the truth from his heart.
He that hath used no deceit in his tongue, or done evil to his neighbor, and hath not slandered his neighbor.
He that setteth not by himself, but is lowly in his own eyes,
and maketh much of them that fear the Lord.
He that sweareth unto his neighbor, and disappointeth him not,
though it were to his own hindrance.
He that hath not given his money upon usury,
nor taken reward against the innocent.
Whoso doeth these things
shall never fail.

Then the Bishop shall have his Mitre removed and stand to say:

B: Let us pray.
O Lord Jesus, Divine Redeemer of mankind, we beseech Thee to grant to this Thy servant(s), who for love of Thee earnestly desire the tonsure, the gift of Thy Holy Spirit. Vouchsafe to keep him undefiled. Give him Thy blessing and the guidance of the Holy Spirit, that he may lead Thy children both by word and example, to the knowledge and love of Thee and of Thy Holy Church. Through the same Christ Jesus our Lord.
Candidate(s): Amen.

Then the Candidates shall stand and with the Choir shall sing or say Psalm 23. The Bishop, with Mitre, shall take his seat.

The Lord is my shepherd;
I shall not want.
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures;
He leadeth me beside the still waters.
He restoreth my soul,
He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for His Name’s sake.
Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil;
for Thou art with me; They rod and Thy staff they comfort me.
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies;
Thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.
Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life;
and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever.

The Tonsure

At the conclusion of the Psalm, the Candidates shall kneel before the Bishop. Then the Bishop, without Crozier, shall cut off some hair from the head of each one, in the form of a cross, saying:

B: In the Name of The Father.
D: Amen.
B: And of The Son.
D: Amen.
B: And of The Holy Spirit.
D: Amen.

After this, the Bishop, without Mitre, shall say:

B: Let us pray.
Grant, we beseech Thee, Almighty God, to this Thy servant(s), the hair of whose head(s) we have this day cut off for love of Thee, that he may always abide in Thy love and be preserved from all uncleanness unto life everlasting. Through Christ Jesus our Lord.
Candidate(s): Amen.

Then the Bishop shall stand and say over the Candidate(s) the following:

B: Let us pray.
O God, Who inspired Thy servant King David to promote Thy worship, mercifully extend Thy blessings upon this Thy chosen son(s) who dedicate(s) his life to Thy Church and service. Grant that he shall serve Thee with reverence and true holiness, to the honor and glory of Thy Name. Through Christ Jesus our Lord.
Candidate(s): Amen.

Bestowal of the Surplice

The Bishop, wearing his Mitre, shall then take his seat. He shall bestow or place a surplice on each Candidate, saying:

B: May the Lord God, Maker of Heaven and earth, make a new man out of you, that through the power of His grace you may live in holiness, love, and truthfulness.
Candidate(s): Amen.

Then the Bishop, without his Mitre, shall stand and say:

B: Let us pray.
Almighty and eternal God, forgive his trespasses and purify his soul(s). Cleanse him from all evil habits and earthly defilements, that he may gladly bear the burden of the people with Thee, that Thou bear it not Thyself alone. And as we have placed on his head(s) a symbol of Thy crown of thorns and renunciation, may he prove himself worthy of Thy grace and of the crown of everlasting salvation.
Candidate(s): Amen.

The Bishop, with Mitre and Staff, shall take his seat and say:

B: Dearly beloved son(s):
From this day you have become a member(s) of the Clergy of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. As such you have renounced the world and have promised to follow Christ. You are duty bound to obey and abide with the Discipline, Constitution, Canons and Doctrines of The Church. Beware that through negligence you may lose the rewards of such Office. Humbly and cheerfully dedicate yourself at all times and in all places to the glory of Christ Jesus and to the salvation of souls.

The Blessing
The tonsured Candidate(s) and the Congregation kneel for the Blessing of the Bishop.

B: The grace of Our Lord Jesus + Christ,
and the love of God the + Father,
and the fellowship of the Holy + Spirit,
be with you now and forever.
C: Amen.
(Return)
Admission to Minor Orders

The admission to Minor Orders should take place on a Sunday or Holyday. In order to permit The Faithful to more fully participate in this celebration, a chair for the Bishop should be placed before The Altar and seats for the Candidates placed so that The Faithful have an unobstructed view of the liturgical rite.

The following shall be prepared:

Keys
Bible
Candles
Each Candidate shall be vested in a surplice. Immediately before the Old Testament Lesson of the Day, the Bishop, with Mitre and Crozier, shall take his seat before The Altar. Each Candidate, properly vested, shall then come forward to stand and bow before the Bishop.

The Presentation of Candidates

P: Reverend Father in God:
I present unto you this man to be admitted to the Office of Door-Keeper, Reader, Acolyte in the Church of God.

B: Is the Candidate(s) whom you present duly prepared by purity of life?
Is he regular in his attendance at The Divine Liturgy?
Does he know his duties and will he exercise his ministry to the honor of God and the edifying of God’s Holy Church?
P: I have inquired concerning him and also examined him and believe him so to be.

The Examination

B: Dearly beloved son(s):
Are you convinced that the work of the Ministry to which you are to be admitted this day is so important that when you are admitted thereto you should diligently perform the same?
Candidate(s): I am so convinced.

B: Will you try faithfully and reverently to execute the duties of your ministry to the best of your ability, as unto the Lord and not unto men?
Candidate(s): I will try so to do.

Door-Keeper
The Bishop shall address those to be admitted Door-Keeper as follows:

B: It is the duty of the Door-Keeper to ring the Church bells, to open the parish doors and the sacristy, and to open the Sacramentary, and to lead a saintly life. He is also in charge of the keys of the parish. Will you strive to comply with these obligations?
Candidate(s): I will so strive, the Lord being my helper.

B: May God guide and bless you in the execution of His work.

The following Lesson shall be read by the Bishop or someone appointed by him. If the Bishop reads the Lesson, he shall stand wearing his Mitre but without his Crozier. If someone else reads the Lesson, the Bishop shall remain seated wearing his Mitre and holding his Crozier.

Lesson:

I Chron. 9:26
These Levites were in an office of trust, and were over the chambers and treasuries of the house of God. And they lodged round about the house of God, because the charge was upon them. And certain of them had charge of the ministering vessels, that they should bring them in and out. Some of them also were appointed to oversee the vessels, and all the instruments of the sanctuary.

The Admission

The Candidates for the Office of Door-Keeper shall kneel before the Bishop. The Bishop shall sit with Mitre and Crozier and place his right hand upon the head of each Candidate, saying over each Candidate:

B: N. N., I admit thee to the Office of Door-Keeper in the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church; in The Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit. Amen.

The Delivery of the Insignia (Keys)

Then the Bishop shall give to each Candidate the Insignia of Office, saying:

B: N., I give you the keys of the parish as insignia of your Ministry, in The Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit. Amen.

The Circuit within the Nave

During the singing of a Psalm or appropriate Hymn by the congregation (or the Choir), the Presenter accompanies the new Door-Keeper(s) around the interior of the Nave. Upon completion of the circuit around the Nave, the Door-Keeper(s) again come(s) to stand before the Bishop. The Bishop stands without his Mitre and Crozier; the Door-Keeper(s) shall kneel.

B: O God, Who gave the Levites charge of the instruments of Thy Holy Temple, Give Thy grace, we beseech Thee, to this Door-Keeper(s) of Thy Church, that devoutly taking care of the portals of Thy Temple and adorning the place with Thy sanctuary, he may make the place of Thy Presence beautiful and glorious. Through Christ Jesus our Lord.
C: Amen.
Reader
The Bishop shall address those to be admitted Reader as follows:

B: It is the Office of a Reader to read the Word of God in the liturgical assembly so that The Faithful may thereby be edified and instructed in the same; to read the Daily Offices in the absence of the Priest or at his direction; and to assist in the instruction of children and adults in The Faith, preparing them to receive the sacraments. Will you do these things with all diligence and devotion?
Candidate(s): I will so strive, the Lord being my helper.

B: Let us pray.
O Lord God Almighty, elect this Thy servant(s), and sanctify him; and enable him, with all wisdom and understanding, to exercise the study and reading of Thy Divine Word, preserving him in blamelessness of life. Through the mercies and bounties and love towards mankind of Thine Only-begotten Son, with whom also Thou art blessed, together with Thine all-holy and good and life-giving Spirit, now and forever.
C: Amen..

After the prayer, the Bishop opens the book of the Epistles upon the head of the Candidate for the Office of Reader. The Presenter leads each Candidate from the Bishop and places him in the middle of the Nave with his face to the east; and the book of the Epistles is given to him, and he readeth, a little, wheresoever it may chance to open. Turning, he bows to the Bishop. The Presenter divests the Candidate of his Surplice. Then the Tunic is brought to the Bishop and he signs it with his hand over the cross. The Candidate, having signed himself with the sign of the cross, kisses the cross upon the Tunic and the hand of the Bishop. The Presenter vests each Candidate in the Tunic and the Bishop exhorts him, saying:

B: My son(s), traditionally the first degree in the Priesthood is that of Reader. It behooves you therefore to peruse the divine Scriptures daily, to the end that the hearers may receive edification; that you in nowise shaming your election, may prepare yourself for an higher degree. For by a chaste, holy and upright life you shall gain the favor of the God of loving-kindness and shall render yourself worthy of a great ministry, through Christ Jesus our Lord. Amen.

The following Lesson shall be read by the Bishop or someone appointed by him. If the Bishop reads the Lesson, he shall stand wearing his Mitre but without his Crozier. If someone else reads the Lesson, the Bishop shall remain seated wearing his Mitre and holding his Crozier.

Lesson:

Nehemiah 8:1
All the people gathered as one man into the square before the Water Gate; and they told Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the law of Moses which the Lord had given to Israel. And Ezra brought the law before the assembly, both men and women and all who could hear with understanding, on the first day of the seventh month. Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people, for he was above all the people; and when he opened it all the people stood. Ezra blessed the Lord, the great God; and all the people answered, Amen, Amen, lifting up their hands; and they bowed their heads and worshiped the Lord with their faces to the ground. The Levites read from the book, from the law of God, clearly; and they gave the sense, so that the people understood the reading.

The Admission of Readers

Every Candidate for the Office of Reader shall now kneel before the Bishop. The Bishop, with Mitre and Crozier, shall sit and place his right hand upon the head of each Candidate, saying in turn:

B: Blessed is the Lord. N., I admit you, having been duly recommended, to the Minor Order of Reader of the most holy Church of N.. In The Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit.
Reader(s): Amen.

The Delivery of the Insignia (Bible)

The Bishop shall then deliver a Holy Bible to each Candidate.

B: And I give you this Holy Bible as the Emblem of your Office, in The Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit.
Reader(s): Amen.

Then the Bishop, without Mitre and Crozier, shall stand and say:

B: Let us pray.
O Almighty God, Whose blessed Son read the Holy Scriptures in the synagogue; Look graciously upon this Reader of Thy Church and enlighten him with wisdom and understanding that he may read Thy Holy Word to the edification of Thy people and the glory of Thy Most Holy Name. Through Christ Jesus our Lord.
Reader(s): Amen.

Then, turning to face the Holy Altar, the Bishop continues:

B: Let us pray.
Holy Lord, Father Almighty, Eternal God, we beseech Thee to bless this Thy servant(s). Help him perform the duties of his sacred Office as Reader of Thy Word, that he may prove himself worthy of Thy glory and the life everlasting.
C: Amen.
Acolyte
The Bishop shall address those to be admitted Acolyte as follows:

B: The ministry of an Acolyte is to aid the Deacon and to minister to the Priest and Bishop in liturgical celebrations, especially in the celebration of The Divine Liturgy; he is also to care for the lights of the Church, assist with the distribution of Holy Communion when called upon by the Celebrant to do so, and to receive the offerings of the people.

I now ask you, therefore: Do you accept this Ministry to which you have been called and do you promise to discharge its duties faithfully, in the fear of God and in accordance with the principles and usage of The Church? Will you do this with loving care, and study to live worthy of this high service?
Candidate(s): I will so strive, the Lord being my helper.

B: May God guide and bless you in the execution of His work.

The following Lesson shall be read by the Bishop or someone appointed by him. If the Bishop reads the Lesson, he shall stand wearing his Mitre but without his Crozier. If someone else reads the Lesson, the Bishop shall remain seated wearing his Mitre and holding his Crozier.

Lesson:

St. Luke 12:35
Let your loins be girded and your lamps burning, and be like men who are waiting for their master to come home from the marriage feast, so that they may open to him at once when he comes and knocks. Blessed are those servants whom the master finds awake when he comes; truly, I say to you, he will gird himself and have them sit at table, and he will come and serve them.

The Admission of Acolyte

The Candidate(s) shall kneel before the Bishop. The Bishop shall sit and extend his right hand over the head of each Candidate, saying in turn:

B: Blessed is the Lord. N., I admit you to the Minor Order of Acolyte in the most Holy Church of N..

The Delivery of the Insignia

The Bishop shall give a candle to each Candidate.

B: I give you this Candle as the Emblem of your Ministry and as a symbol to remind you that it is your duty to light the lights of the Church. In The Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit.
Acolyte(s): Amen.

The Bishop shall now give an Alms Basin to each Candidate.

B: Accept this Alms Basin in which to receive the offerings of the People of God, now offering yourself as a sacrifice to Christ in faith and life. In The Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit.
Acolyte(s): Amen

Each Candidate is now vested with a Cotta, after which he kneels before The Bishop at the foot of the Altar. The Bishop, facing the congregation, says:

B: Dearly Beloved: Let us now humbly beseech God The Father Almighty to bless this His servant in the Office to which he has just been admitted, that by his service and conduct he may glorify Him Who is The Light of the world, Christ Jesus our Lord and God.

The Bishop shall then remove his Mitre and give his Crozier to the bearer. He shall then stand and face the Holy Altar, saying:

B: Let us pray.
O Glorious King, before Whose Heavenly Throne the Angels stand to do Thy Will, Bless, we beseech Thee, the Acolytes of Thy Church, that ministering before Thine earthly throne they may serve Thee with reverence and holiness, to the honor and glory of Thy Most Holy Name. Through Christ Jesus our Lord.
C: Amen.

B: Holy Lord, Father Almighty, Eternal God, Who didst speak to Moses and Aaron that the lamps should be lighted in the Tabernacle, Bless this Thy servant, that he may be a faithful Acolyte in Thy Holy Church.
C: Amen

B: Almighty, everlasting God, Fountain of light and Source of all goodness, Who hast enlightened the world through Christ Jesus Thy Son, the True Light, and hast redeemed it through the mystery of His Passion, vouchsafe to bless this Thy servant whom Thou has called to the Office of Acolyte. We beseech Thee in Thy mercy to illumine his mind with the light of Thy knowledge, and to refresh him with the dew of Thy tender love, that with Thy help he may faithfully serve Thee and Thy people here and in the varied walks of this life. Through the same Christ Jesus our God and Lord.
C: Amen
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Ordination of a Subdeacon

When the following Rite is used at The Divine Liturgy, it immediately precedes The Old Testament Lesson.

The Candidate(s) shall be vested in Cassock, Amice, Alb, and Cincture. Each Candidate shall hold over his left arm a folded Tunicle and a Maniple.

The Presentation

The Presenter shall conduct the Candidate(s) to the Bishop who, with Mitre and Staff, shall be seated before the Chancel.

Presenter: Reverend Father in God, I present unto you this man to be admitted to the Office and Work of a Subdeacon.

B: Is this man whom you present duly prepared by his purity of life;
Is he regular in his attendance at The Divine Liturgy;
Does he know his duties;
has he received the other Minor Orders;
and is he prepared to exercise his Ministry to the honor and glory of God and the edification of His Church?
Presenter: I have instructed and examined him, and believe him so to be, Reverend Father.

When there is more than one Candidate, the Bishop continues:

B: Please call their names.

The Presenter shall then, in firm and loud voice, call the name of each Candidate. Each Candidate shall respond when his name is publicly called with: Present.

The Examination

B: Before you are ordained a Subdeacon in The One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church you must declare before The Faithful your intention to undertake this Office and Work.

N. N., are you willing to now be ordained for The Church’s ministry of Subdeacon by the laying-on-of-hands and the gift of The Holy Spirit?
Candidate(s): I am.

B: Do you believe the canonical books of the Old and the New Testament to be the inspired Word of God and the sole rule and standard according to which all doctrine together with all teachers should be estimated and judged?
Candidate(s): I do so believe.

B: Do you believe and profess the three Catholic and Öcumenical Creeds to be the unanimous, universal Christian Faith and confession of the Orthodox and Catholic Church, namely, The Apostles’ Creed, The Nicene Creed, and The Athanasian Creed?
Candidate(s): I do so believe and confess.

B: Do you hold and profess The Symbolical Writings of The Evangelical Catholic Church to be a faithful and unadulterated statement and exposition of the true Catholic and Orthodox doctrine of The Holy Scripture, namely, The Unaltered Augsburg Confession, The Apology of The Augsburg Confession, The Smalcald Articles, The Small and Large Catechisms of Dr. Martin Luther, and The Formula of Concord?
Candidate(s): I do so hold and profess.

B: Are you determined to assist the Pastor in his Ministry, especially when he celebrates The Divine Liturgy;
to publicly read The Old Testament and Epistle Lessons in The Church;
to clean the Nave and Apse of the Church;
to prepare the vestments and items used during The Divine Liturgy;
to assist at all liturgical celebrations;
and to bear the Processional Cross when required?
Candidate(s): I will so do, by the help of God.

B: Will you apply all your diligence to frame, mold and fashion your own life (and the lives of all your family members) to the doctrine of Christ;
to make (both) yourself (and your family), as much as in you lies, wholesome examples to the flock of Christ?
Candidate(s): I will so do, by the help of God.

B: Will you reverently obey your Bishop and other Ministers, who, according to the Canons of The Church, may have the charge and government over you, following with a glad mind and will their godly admonitions and submitting yourself to their godly judgement?
Candidate(s): I will so do, by the help of God.

The Ordination

The Bishop individually speaks the following prayer over each Candidate as he places his hand on the Candidate’s head:

B: O Lord our God, Who, through one and the same Holy Spirit distributing gifts of grace to each one of those whom Thou hast chosen, hast given to Thy Holy Church divers Orders; Who, through Thine inscrutable providence hast appointed degrees of ministry therein, for the service of Thy Holy, Spotless Mysteries; and Who, through Thine ineffable foreknowledge, hast ordained this Thy servant to be worthy to serve in Thy Holy Church: Do Thou, the same Lord, preserve him uncondemned in all things. And grant that he may love the beauty of Thy House, stand before the doors of Thy Holy Temple, and kindle the lamps in the tabernacle of Thy glory. And plant him in Thy Holy Church like a fruitful olive tree, which bringeth forth the fruits of righteousness. And make him Thy perfect servant in the time of Thine Advent, that he may receive the recompense of those who are well-pleasing in Thy sight. For Thine are the Kingdom and the Power and the Glory, of The Father, and of The Son, and of The Holy Spirit, now, and ever, and unto ages of ages.
C: Amen.

The Delivery of The Chalice with the Paten and Purificator

B: Receive this Paten and Chalice for The Divine Liturgy. Keep them clean at all times. And remember that you must keep your heart and mind always clean in order that you may be a worthy temple of The Holy Spirit.

The Delivery of the Cruets

The Presenter shall give each Candidate the Cruets for the wine and water.

The Bishop shall stand and say to The Faithful:.

B: Let us now pray to Almighty God that it may please Him to accept this His servant(s) now called unto the Office of Subdeacon in His Holy Church, and to pour upon him the grace of His Heavenly benediction.

All pray silently. After the silent prayer, The Bishop (without his Mitre) shall stand and face the Candidate(s) to say (or sing in the tune of The Preface) the following. The Candidate(s) shall kneel.

B: The Lord be with you.
C: And with you His servant.

B: Lift up your hearts.
C: We lift them up unto The Lord.

B: Let us give thanks unto The Lord our God.
C: It is meet and right so to do.

B: O Lord God, our Father Almighty, extend Thy Blessing upon this Thy servant(s) now admitted to the Order of Subdeacon. Keep him in Thy ways. Make him ever holy, diligent, merciful, meek, and worthy of Thy service. Confirm him in Thy ministry with the strength of Thy Holy Spirit; that being obedient to They Commandments and constant in his faith, he may possess everlasting life. Through Christ Jesus our Lord.
C: Amen.

The Placing of the Amice on the Head of The Candidate(s)

The Bishop shall take his seat and wear his Mitre. Then he shall place on the head of each Subdeacon the Amice that is already around the Candidate’s neck, saying:

B: Receive this Amice which signifies the guard that should be set over your words and remind you that you must sing God’s praises in The Name of Christ + Jesus our Lord and God.
C: Amen.

The Placing of the Maniple on the Subdeacon’s Left Arm

While placing the Maniple, the Bishop shall say:

B: Receive the Maniple that will remind you of your duty to render good fruits in your labor in the vineyard of God, which you will do in The Name of Christ + Jesus our Lord and God.
C: Amen.

The Bestowal of The Tunicle

B: Receive this Tunicle, the garment of joy and gladness, and prove to be worthy of it by increasing in The Spirit of the Lord, Whose fruits are: love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, and temperance. In The Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit.
C: Amen.

The Delivery of The Missal

B: Receive this Book of Divine Office and read it diligently all the days of your life that someday you may wisely preach the Word of God, in The Name of Christ Jesus our Lord and God.
C: Amen.

The Bishop shall now have his Mitre removed and, standing, prays:

B: Let us pray.
O Almighty God, Bless, we beseech Thee, this Thy servant(s) that in Thy Sanctuary he may be a zealous and watchful sentinel(s) of the Heavenly Host and serve faithfully at Thy Holy Altar. Grant that Thy Holy Spirit rests upon him and confirm him in his ministry; that being docile and obedient in word and work he may obtain Thy grace. Through Christ Jesus our Lord and Savior.
C: Amen.

The Divine Liturgy then continues. One of the new Subdeacons shall now read The Old Testament Lesson. All those admitted Subdeacons shall fully partake of The Holy Communion.
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Ordination of a Deacon

The ordination of a Deacon should take place on a Sunday or Holyday during the celebration of The Divine Liturgy. In order to permit The Faithful to more fully participate in this celebration, a chair for the Consecrator should be placed before The Altar and seats for the Candidates placed so that The Faithful have an unobstructed view of the liturgical rite.

The following shall be prepared:
– Mass & Ordination vestments for the Consecrator
– A Bible, Candle, Amice, Alb, Cincture, Stole, Maniple, and Dalmatic for each Candidate.

Each Candidate shall wear the Amice, Alb, Cincture and Maniple, and have a lighted Chandle in his right hand.

After the Collect of the Day, the Bishop (with Mitre and Crozier) shall take his seat before the Altar. When each Candidate, properly vested, stands before the Bishop, the Priest designated as Presenter (P) shall say:

The Presentation

P: Most Reverend Father in God, I present unto you this man present to be admitted to the Office and Work of a Deacon.

B: Do you judge him to be worthy?
P: I have inquired concerning him, and also examined him, and upon recommendation of those concerned with his training, I testify that he has been found worthy, Reverend Father.

When there is more than one Candidate, the Bishop continues:

B: Please call their names.

The Presenter shall then, in firm and loud voice, call the name of each Candidate. Each Candidate shall respond when his name is publicly called with: Present.

Then the Bishop shall stand and say to The Faithful:

B: Brethren, if there be any of you who knoweth any impediment or notable crime in this man presented to be ordained Deacon, for which he ought not to be admitted to that Office and Work, let him now come forth in The Name of God and show what the crime or impediment is.

If no objector appears, the Bishop shall commend to the Prayers of The Faithful him who has been found meet to be ordained Deacon, saying:

B:My dear People:
There being no lawful objection, I ask you to declare your will that the deaconate be conferred upon N.Is he worthy?
C: He is worthy! He is worthy! He is worthy!
B:Relying upon the guidance of The Holy Spirit, The Church hereby announces the election of N. and Her intent this day to ordain him to the Office and Work of Deacon in The One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. I now commend him who has been found meet to be ordained a Deacon to the prayers of those here present.

Then shall the Bishop, with the whole Clergy and People present, sing or say The Litany, while the Candidate prostrates himself below the lowest step in front of The Altar.

At the Suffrage for the Deacons and Priests, the Bishop, with Mitre and Crozier, stands to bless the Candidate, saying:

B:That it may please Thee to bl+ess this Thy + servant(s), N., now to be admitted to the Order and Office of Deacon, and to pour Thy + grace upon him; that he may duly exercise his Office, to the edifying of Thy Holy Church and to the glory of Thy Holy Name.

The Bishop now gives up his Crozier and kneels again with his Mitre on.

The Litany ended, The Divine Liturgy continues with The Old Testament Lesson.

The Examination

After the reading of The Epistle, the Bishop (with Mitre and Crozier) shall sit and examine the Candidate in the presence of The Faithful, in this manner:

B: My son(s):
Before you are ordained a Deacon in The Church you must declare before The Faithful your intention to undertake this Office and Work.

N. N., are you willing to now be ordained for The Church’s ministry of Deacon by the laying-on-of-hands and the gift of The Holy Spirit?
Candidate(s): I am.

B: Do you believe the canonical books of the Old and the New Testament to be the inspired Word of God and the sole rule and standard according to which all doctrine together with all teachers should be estimated and judged?
Candidate(s): I do so believe.

B: Do you believe and profess the three Catholic and Ecumenical Creeds to be the unanimous, universal Christian Faith and confession of the Orthodox and Catholic Church, namely, The Apostles’ Creed, The Nicene Creed, and The Athanasian Creed?
Candidate(s): I do so believe and confess.

B: Do you hold and profess The Symbolical Writings of The Evangelical Catholic Church to be a faithful and unadulterated statement and exposition of the true Catholic and Orthodox doctrine of The Holy Scripture, namely, The Unaltered Augsburg Confession, The Apology of The Augsburg Confession, The Smalcald Articles, The Small and Large Catechisms of Dr. Martin Luther, and The Formula of Concord?
Candidate(s): I do so hold and profess.

B: Are you determined to assist the Pastor in his Ministry, especially when he celebrates The Divine Liturgy, and to help him in the distribution thereof; to publicly read The Holy Scriptures in The Church; to instruct the youth in the catechism; in the absence of The Pastor, to baptize infants and adults; to faithfully preach The Word of God both in season and out of season, if you be so permitted by the Bishop; to search for the sick, poor, and impotent people of the Parish, that they may be relieved with the alms of The Faithful and come to know the love of God and their brothers and sisters in Christ?
Candidate(s): I will so do, by the help of God.

B: Will you apply all your diligence to frame, mold and fashion your own life (and the lives of all your family members) to the doctrine of Christ; to make (both) yourself (and your family), as much as in you lies, wholesome examples to the flock of Christ?
Candidate(s): I will so do, by the help of God.

B: Will you reverently obey your Bishop and other Ministers, who, according to the Canons of The Church, may have the charge and government over you, following with a glad mind and will their godly admonitions and submitting yourself to their godly judgement?
Candidate(s): I will so do, by the help of God.

The Bishop shall stand and say to The Faithful:

B:Let us pray to Almighty God that it may please Him to accept this His servant(s) now called unto the Office of Deacon in His Holy Church, and to pour upon him the grace of His Heavenly benediction.

All pray silently. After the silent prayer, the Bishop (without his Mitre) shall stand and face the Candidate(s) to say (or sing in the tune of The Preface) the following. The Candidate(s) shall kneel.

B: The Lord be with you.
C: And with you His servant.

B: Lift up your hearts.
C: We lift them up unto The Lord.

B: Let us give thanks unto The Lord our God.
C: It is meet and right so to do.

B: It is truly meet, right and salutary that we should at all times and in all places give thanks unto Thee, O Lord, Holy Father, Almighty, Everlasting God; and especially are we bound to praise Thee because in Thy great goodness Thou does send forth laborers into Thy harvest, and hast vouchsafed to call this Thy servant(s) into the Office and Work of Deacon in Thy Holy Church. Fill him, we beseech Thee, with Thy Holy Spirit, that, enabled by the sevenfold gifts of His grace, he may be faithful to his promises; modest, humble, and constant in his ministration, and may have a ready will to observe all spiritual discipline; that, having always the testimony of a good conscience, he may continue ever stable and strong in Thy Son Christ Jesus, to Whom, with Thee and the same Holy Spirit, be all honor and glory, world without end.
C: Amen.

The Bishop sits down and puts on the Mitre. Then the Candidate (one by one when there is more than one Candidate) shall kneel directly before the Bishop, who shall lay his hands upon the head of the Candidate, saying:

B:The grace divine, which always heals that which is infirm, and completes that which is wanting, elevate, through the laying-on of my hands, N., to be a Deacon in The Holy Church of God. In the Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit.

Addressing the congregation, the Bishop says:

Let us pray for N., that the grace of the All-Holy Spirit may come upon him.
The Bishop, again placing his hand upon the Candidate’s head, prays:

O Lord our God, Who by Thy foreknowledge doest send down the fullness of The Holy Spirit upon those who are ordained by Thine inscrutable power to be Thy servitors, and to administer Thy spotless Sacraments: Do Thou, the same Sovereign Master, preserve also this man, whom Thou has been pleased to ordain, through me, by the Laying-on-of-Hands, to the service of the Deaconate, in all soberness of life, holding the mystery of the faith in pure conscience. Grant unto him the grace which Thou didst grant unto Stephen, Thy first Martyr, whom also Thou didst call to be the first in all the work of Thy ministry; and make him worthy to administer after Thy pleasure the degree which it hath seemed good to Thee to confer upon him. For they who minister well prepare for themselves a good degree. And manifest him as wholly Thy servant. For Thine is the Kingdom and the Power and the Glory, of the Father, and of The Son, and of The Holy Spirit, now, and ever, and unto ages of ages.
C:Amen.

And the Bishop, keeping his hand upon the head of him who is receiving Holy Orders, continues:

O God our Saviour, Who by Thine incorruptible voice didst appoint unto Thine Apostles the law of the Deaconate, and didst manifest the first Martyr, Stephen, to be of the same; and dist proclaim him the first who should exercise the office of a Deacon, as it is written in Thy Holy Gospel: Whosoever desireth to be first among you, let him be your servant; Do Thou, O Master of all men, fill also this Thy servant, N., whom Thou hast graciously permitted to enter upon the ministry of a Deacon, with all faith, and love, and power, and holiness, through the inspiration of Thy Holy and Life-Giving Spirit; for not through the Laying-on of my hands, but through the visitation of Thy rich bounties, is grace bestowed upon Thy worthy ones; that he, being devoid of all sin, may stand blameless before Thee in the terrible Day of Judgement, and receive the unfailing reward of Thy promise. For Thou are our God, and unto Thee do we ascribe glory, to The Father, and to The Son, and to The Holy Spirit, now, and ever, and unto ages of ages.
C:Amen.

Taking the Stole, the Bishop presents the Cross at its center to be kissed by the Candidate and lays it on the Candidate’s left shoulder, saying:

B: Receive this Stole as a token of purity of life, for which you are bound to strive, and as a reminder that you must zealously fulfill your Ministry.

While one of the assisting Priests ties the extremities of the Stole on the right side of the Dandidate’s body (should this be required because of the type of Stole used), the Bishop shall say:

B:May the Almighty + God help you with His grace to achieve the same.
C:Amen.
The Bishop shall vest the Candidate with the Dalmatic, saying:

B: May The Lord clothe you with the robe of virtue and the spiritual joy of the saintly souls. May the Dalmatic of justice ever surround you, In The Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit.
C:Amen
Then the Bishop shall deliver a Bible to the Candidate, saying:

B: Receive this Bible as the sign of your authority to proclaim God’s Word and to assist in the ministrations of His Holy Sacraments. Believe what you read, teach what you believe, and practice what you teach.

C:Amen.

The Divine Liturgy continues with the reading of The Gospel by a newly ordained Deacon.
(Return)

Ordination of a Priest

The ordination of a Priest should take place on a Sunday or Holyday during the celebration of The Divine Liturgy. In order to permit The Faithful to more fully participate in this celebration, a chair for the Consecrator should be placed before The Altar and seats for the Candidates placed so that The Faithful have an unobstructed view of the liturgical rite.

The following shall be prepared:
– Mass & Ordination vestments for the Consecrator
– A Bible, Candle, Amice, Alb, Cincture, Stole, Maniple, and Chasuble for each Candidate.
– A Chalice with Wine, Paten containing Bread
– A Vessel containing the Holy Chrism
– Water and Napkins for the washing of hands.

Each Candidate shall be vested in Amice, Alb, Cincture, Stole worn over the breast in the manner of a Deacon, and Maniple. The Candidate(s) shall come forward with a Chasuble folded over the left arm, a napkin over the right arm, and a lighted Candle held in the right hand.

After the Gospel of the Day, the Bishop (with Mitre and Crozier) shall take his seat before the Altar. When each Candidate, properly vested, stands before the Bishop, the Priest designated as Presenter (P) shall say:

The Presentation

P: Most Reverend Father in God:
Holy Mother Church asks you to ordain this man present to the Order and Ministry of Priest.

The Bishop then asks:

B: Do you judge him to be worthy?
P: I have inquired concerning him, and also examined him, and upon recommendation of those concerned with his training, I testify that he has been found worthy, Reverend Father.

When there is more than one Candidate, the Bishop continues:

B: Please call their names.

The Presenter shall then, in firm and loud voice, call the name of each Candidate. Each Candidate shall respond when his name is publicly called with: Present.

Then the Bishop shall stand and say to The Faithful:

B: Good People:
Here present before you is he whom we purpose, God willing, to receive this day unto the Holy Office of Priest. If there be any of you who knoweth any impediment or notable Crime in this man present to be ordained priest for which he ought not to be admitted to that Work and Office, let him now come forth in The Name of God and show what the crime or impediment is.

If no objector appears, the Bishop shall commend to the Prayers of The Faithful him who has been found meet to be ordained Priest, saying:

B: My dear People:
There being no lawful objection, I ask you to declare your will that the priesthood be conferred upon N. Is he worthy?
C: He is worthy! He is worthy! He is worthy!

B: Relying upon the guidance of The Holy Spirit, The Church hereby announces the election of N., N. and Her intent this day to ordain him to the Office and Work of Priest in The One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.
C:Thanks be to God.

The Exhortation to the Candidate(s)

Then shall follow the Bishop’s Exhortation to the Candidate(s), after which, with the whole Clergy and People present, the Bishop shall sing or say The Litany while the Candidate(s) prostrates himself below the lowest step in front of The Altar.

The Litany for the Ministry

B: We humbly pray that Thou wouldst hear us, O Lord; and that Thou wouldst send peace to the whole world, which Thou has reconciled to Thyself by the ministry of Thy Son, Jesus.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: That Thou woulds guide all in civil authority to establish justic and maintain it for all men.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: That Thou wouldst heal the divisions of Thy Church, that She may be truly One.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: That Thou wouldst grant to Thy people the forgiveness of sins, and give us grace to amend our lives.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: That Thou wouldst lead every member of Thy Church in his particular vocation and ministry to serve Thee in a true and godly life.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: That Thou wouldst raise up able ministers for Thy Church, that The Gospel may be made known to all people.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: That Thou wouldst inspire all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons with Thy love, that they may hunger for Truth and thirst after Righteousness.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: That Thou wouldst fill them with compassion, and move them to care for all Thy people.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

The Bishop, with Mitre and Crozier, stands to bless the Candidate(s) for Holy Ordination, saying:

B: That it may please Thee to bl+ess this Thy + servant(s), N., now to be admitted to the Order and Office of Deacon/Priest, and to pour Thy + grace upon him; that he may duly exercise his Office, to the edifying of Thy Holy Church and to the glory of Thy Holy Name.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

The Bishop now gives up his Crozier and kneels again with his Mitre on, and continues:

B: That Thou wouldst bless his family/the members of his household or community, and adorn them with all Christian virtues.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: That by the indwelling of Thy Holy Spirit Thou wouldst sustain those who have been called to the ministry of Thy Church, and encourage them to persevere to the end.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: That we, with [Thy blessed servant, St. ____________, and] all Thy saints who have fallen asleep before us in the sure hope of resurrection unto life eternal, may be gathered into Thy unending Kingdom.
C: Lord, hear our prayer.

B: Lord God, hear our petitions and give Thy help to this act of our ministry this day. We judge this man worthy to serve Thee in Thy Most Holy Church as a Deacon/Priest and we ask Thee to bless him and make him holy. Grant this through Christ Jesus our Lord and only Savior.
C: Amen.

The Litany ended, The Divine Liturgy continues with The Homily. After the Homily, the Bishop (with Mitre and Crozier) shall sit and examine the Candidate(s) in the presence of The Faithful, in this manner:

The Examination

B: My dear son(s) in Christ Jesus our God and Savior:
Before you are ordained a Priest in The Church you must declare before The Faithful your intention to undertake this Office and Work.

N. N., do you think and believe in your heart(s) that you are truly called of God to the Order and Ministry of Priesthood?
Candidate(s): I do so believe.

B: Do you believe the canonical books of the Old and the New Testament to be the inspired Word of God and the sole rule and standard according to which all doctrine together with all teachers should be estimated and judged?
Candidate(s): I do so believe.

B: Do you believe and profess the three Catholic and Ecumenical Creeds to be the unanimous, universal Christian Faith and confession of the Orthodox and Catholic Church, namely, The Apostles’ Creed, The Nicene Creed, and The Athanasian Creed?
Candidate(s): I do so believe and confess.

B: Do you hold and profess The Symbolical Writings of The Evangelical Catholic Church to be a faithful and unadulterated statement and exposition of the true Catholic and Orthodox doctrine of The Holy Scriptures, namely, The Unaltered Augsburg Confession, The Apology of The Augsburg Confession, The Smalcald Articles, The Small and Large Catechisms of Dr. Martin Luther, and The Formula of Concord?
Candidate(s): I do so hold and profess.

B: Are you resolved to celebrate The Holy Mysteries faithfully and religiously as The Church has handed them down to us for the glory of God and the sanctification of Christ’s people?
Candidate(s): I am, with the help of God.

B: Are you resolved to exercise the Office of The Word, the Holy Ministry, worthily and wisely, faithfully proclaiming The Gospel and teaching the Catholic and Orthodox Faith?
Candidate(s): I am, with the help of God.

B: Are you resolved to consecrate your life to God for the salvation of His people, and to unite yourself more closely every day to Christ the High Priest and Good Shepherd, Who offered Himself for us to The Father as a perfect sacrifice?
Candidate(s): I am, with the help of God.

B: Will you apply all your diligence to frame, mold and fashion your own life (and the lives of all your family members) to the doctrine of Christ; to make (both) yourself (and your family), as much as in you lies, wholesome examples to the flock of Christ?
Candidate(s): I will so do, by the help of God.

B: Will you reverently obey your Bishop and other Ministers, who, according to the Canons of The Church, may have the charge and government over you, following with a glad mind and will their godly admonitions and submitting yourself to their godly judgement?
Candidate(s): I will so do, by the help of God.

The Bishop shall stand and say to The Faithful:

B:The harvest truly is plenteous but the laborers are few; Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest that He will send forth laborers into His harvest (Matthew 9:37-38).

The Bishop shall remove his Mitre, then continues:

B: Let us pray.
Almighty God, Who hath given you this will to do all these things, Grant also unto you strength and power to perform the same, that He may accomplish His work which He hath begun in you; through Christ Jesus our Lord.
C: Amen.

Now the Bishop, the Candidate(s), and the People shall kneel. The Bishop gives up his Crozier. The following (Veni, Creator Spiritus) may be said or sung:

Thy blessed unction from above,
IS COMFORT, LIFE, AND FIRE OF LOVE.
Enable with perpetual light
THE DULLNESS OF OUR BLINDED SIGHT.

Anoint and cheer our soiled face
WITH THE ABUNDANCE OF THY GRACE.
Keep far our foes, give peace at home
WHERE THOU ART GUIDE, NO ILL CAN COME.

Teach us to know The Father, Son,
AND THEE, OF BOTH, TO BE BUT ONE;
that, through the ages all along,
THIS MAY BE OUR ENDLESS SONG:
Praise to Thy eternal merit,
FATHER, SON, AND HOLY SPIRIT. AMEN.

After the above hymn (Veni, Creator Spiritus) the Bishop (without his Mitre) shall stand and face the Candidate(s) to say (or sing in the tune of The Preface) the following. The Candidate(s) shall remain kneeling.

B: The Lord be with you.
C: And with you His servant.

B: Lift up your hearts.
C: We lift them up unto The Lord.

B: Let us give thanks unto The Lord our God.
C: It is meet and right so to do.

B: It is truly meet, right and salutary that we should at all times and in all places give thanks unto Thee, O Lord, Holy Father, Almighty, Everlasting God, Who, of Thine infinite love and goodness towards us, hast given to us Thy Only and Most Dearly Beloved Son, Christ Jesus, to be our Redeemer and the Author of Everlasting Life; Who, after He had made perfect our redemption by His death, and was ascended into Heaven, sent abroad into the world His Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Doctors, and pastors, by whose labor and ministry He gathered together a great flock in all parts of the world, to set forth the eternal praise of Thy Holy Name: For these so great benefits of Thy eternal goodness and for that Thou hast vouchsafed to call this Thy servant N., here present to the same Office and Ministry appointed for the salvation of mankind, we render unto Thee the most hearty thanks, we praise and worship Thee; and we humbly beseech Thee, by the same Thy Blessed Son, to endue N., with all grace needful for his Calling; and grant unto all, who either here or elsewhere call upon Thy Holy Name, that we may continue to show ourselves thankful unto Thee for this and all Thy other benefits; and that we may daily increase and go forwards in the knowledge and faith of Thee and Thy Son, by The Holy Spirit. So that as well by this Thy Minister, as by them over whom he shall be appointed Thy Priest, Thy Holy Name may be forever glorified, and Thy blessed Kingdom enlarged; through the same, Thy Son, Christ Jesus our Lord, Who liveth and reigneth with Thee in the unity of the same Holy Spirit, world without end.
C: Amen.

The Bishop sits down and puts on the Mitre. Then the Candidate (one by one when there is more than one Candidate) shall kneel directly before the Bishop, who shall lay his hands upon the head of the Candidate, saying:

B: The grace divine, which always heals that which is infirm, and completes that which is wanting, elevate, through the laying-on of our hands, N., the most devout Deacon, to be a Priest in The Holy Church of God. Whose sins thou dost forgive, they are forgiven; and whose sins thou dost retain, they are retained. And be thou a faithful Dispenser of the Word of God and of His Holy Mysteries. In the Name of The + Father, and of The + Son, and of The Holy + Spirit. Amen.

B: Let us pray for N., that the grace of the All-Holy Spirit may come upon him.

The Bishop, blessing the Ordinand thrice and then leaving his hand upon the Candidate’s head, prays:

B: O God, Who hast no beginning and no ending; Who art older than every created thing; Who crownest with the name of Presbyter those whom Thou deemest worthy to serve the Word of Thy Truth in the divine ministry of this degree: Do Thou, the same Lord of all men, deign to preserve in pureness of life and in unswerving faith this man also, upon whom, through me, Thou hast graciously been pleased to lay hands. Be favorably pleased to grant unto him the great grace of Thy Holy Spirit, and make him wholly Thy servant, in all things acceptable unto Thee, and worthily exercising the great honours of the priesthood which Thou hast conferred upon him by Thy precious power. For Thin is the majesty and Thine are the Kingdom and the Power and the Glory, of The Father, and of The Son, and of The Holy Spirit, now, and ever, and unto ages of ages.
C: Amen.

And the Bishop, again blessing thrice him who is receiving Ordination, keeping his hand upon the Ordinand’s head, continues:

B: O God great in might and inscrutable in wisdom, marvelous in counsel above the sons of men: Do Thou the very same Lord, fill with the gift of Thy Holy Spirit this man whom it hath pleased Thee to advance to the degree of Priest; that he may be worthy to stand in innocency before Thine Altar; to proclaim the Gospel of Thy Kingdom; to minister the word of Thy Truth; to offer unto Thee spiritual gifts and sacrifices; to renew Thy people through the laver of regeneration. That when he shall go to meet Thee at the Second Coming of our great God and Savior, Jesus the Christ, Thine Only-Begotten Son, he may receive the reward of a good steward in the degree committed unto him, through the plenitude of Thy Goodness. For blessed and glorified is Thine All-Holy and Majestic Name of The Father, and of The Son, and of The Holy Spirit, now and ever, world without end.
C: Amen.

Then the Bishop, with Crozier, shall deliver to the Ordinand the Holy Bible, saying:

B: Take thou authority to preach the Word of God and to administer the Holy Sacraments in the Congregation, when thou shall be lawfully appointed thereunto. Believe what you read, teach what you believe, and practice what you teach.
C: Amen.

Here the Ordinand shall stand before the Bishop, who shall cause the Stole to be worn priestwise. The Bishop shall then say:

B: Receive the yoke of The Lord; For His yoke is easy and His burden light.
C: Amen.

After modifying the Stole, the Bishop shall, with the help of a Priest, cause the Chasuble to be worn by the ordinand. He shall then say:

B: Receive the priestly vestment as a token of love; may God our Father Almighty bestow upon you the gift of true charity.
C: Thank be to God.

This said, the Ordinand again kneels. The Bishop, without Mitre, stands and says over the Ordinand:

B: O God, the Author of all sanctification, we beseech Thee to send Thy Heavenly blessings upon this Thy servant N., that he may be clothed with righteousness, and that Thy Word, spoken by his mouth, may have such success, that it may never be uttered in vain. Grant also that we may have grace to accept what he shall deliver out of Thy Most Holy Word, as the means of our salvation; that in all our words and deeds we may ever seek Thy glory, and the increase of Thy Kingdom; through Christ Jesus our Lord, Who lives and reigns with Thee and The Holy Spirit, ever one God, world without end.
C: Amen.

After the above prayer, the Bishop sits and one of the Priests shall put on him the Mitre. Then he removes his gloves to anoint with the Holy Chrism the palms of the Ordinand, who shall kneel before him. The Bishop says:

B: O Lord, we beseech Thee to consecrate and sanctify these hands with Thy holy + blessing and this anointing, that all things blessed by this Thy servant be blessed, and those that be consecrated be consecrated and + sanctified in Thy Holy Name.
C: Amen.

The anointing done, the Bishop cleans his fingers with bread and then joins the hands of each Ordinand, causing them to be loosely tied with a white napkin. Then the Bishop shall cause the Chalice (with wine) and the Paten (with a host) to be grasped by the ordinand. The Bishop then says:

B: Take thou Authority to celebrate The Divine Liturgy + in The Name of The Father, and of The Son, and of The Holy Spirit.
C: Amen.

The Divine Liturgy then continues with The Offertory, at which time the ties on the hands of each Ordinand is removed. The Ordinand’s hands are cleansed with water and bread.

Where customary, the newly ordained concelebrate with the Bishop.